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Finely-Tuned Calcium Oscillations in Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption

1
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
2
Center of Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan
3
Department of Physiological Science and Molecular Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(1), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010180
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 26 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates of Calcineurin/NFAT Signaling in Human Health and Diseases)
Calcium (Ca2+) plays an important role in regulating the differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Calcium oscillations (Ca oscillations) are well-known phenomena in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via calcineurin. Many modifiers are involved in the fine-tuning of Ca oscillations in osteoclasts. In addition to macrophage colony-stimulating factors (M-CSF; CSF-1) and RANKL, costimulatory signaling by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-harboring adaptors is important for Ca oscillation generation and osteoclast differentiation. DNAX-activating protein of 12 kD is always necessary for osteoclastogenesis. In contrast, Fc receptor gamma (FcRγ) works as a key controller of osteoclastogenesis especially in inflammatory situation. FcRγ has a cofactor in fine-tuning of Ca oscillations. Some calcium channels and transporters are also necessary for Ca oscillations. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are well-known environmental sensors, and TRP vanilloid channels play an important role in osteoclastogenesis. Lysosomes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are typical organelles for intracellular Ca2+ storage. Ryanodine receptor, inositol trisphosphate receptor, and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase on the ER modulate Ca oscillations. Research on Ca oscillations in osteoclasts has still many problems. Surprisingly, there is no objective definition of Ca oscillations. Causality between Ca oscillations and osteoclast differentiation and/or function remains to be examined. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium oscillation; osteoclast; receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL); transient receptor potential (TRP) channel; costimulatory signal; immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) calcium oscillation; osteoclast; receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL); transient receptor potential (TRP) channel; costimulatory signal; immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okada, H.; Okabe, K.; Tanaka, S. Finely-Tuned Calcium Oscillations in Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010180

AMA Style

Okada H, Okabe K, Tanaka S. Finely-Tuned Calcium Oscillations in Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(1):180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010180

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okada, Hiroyuki, Koji Okabe, and Sakae Tanaka. 2021. "Finely-Tuned Calcium Oscillations in Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 1: 180. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010180

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