) plays an important role in regulating the differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Calcium oscillations (Ca oscillations) are well-known phenomena in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via calcineurin. Many modifiers are involved in the fine-tuning of Ca oscillations in osteoclasts. In addition to macrophage colony-stimulating factors (M-CSF; CSF-1) and RANKL, costimulatory signaling by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-harboring adaptors is important for Ca oscillation generation and osteoclast differentiation. DNAX-activating protein of 12 kD is always necessary for osteoclastogenesis. In contrast, Fc receptor gamma (FcRγ) works as a key controller of osteoclastogenesis especially in inflammatory situation. FcRγ has a cofactor in fine-tuning of Ca oscillations. Some calcium channels and transporters are also necessary for Ca oscillations. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are well-known environmental sensors, and TRP vanilloid channels play an important role in osteoclastogenesis. Lysosomes, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are typical organelles for intracellular Ca2+
storage. Ryanodine receptor, inositol trisphosphate receptor, and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+
ATPase on the ER modulate Ca oscillations. Research on Ca oscillations in osteoclasts has still many problems. Surprisingly, there is no objective definition of Ca oscillations. Causality between Ca oscillations and osteoclast differentiation and/or function remains to be examined.
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