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Extracellular Vesicles and Tumor-Immune Escape: Biological Functions and Clinical Perspectives

1
Department of Biomedicine, Neurosciences and Advanced Diagnostics (Bi.N.D), Section of Biology and Genetics, University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy
2
Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology “A. Monroy”, National Research Council, 90146 Palermo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2286; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072286
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy Using Checkpoint Inhibitors: Future Directions)
The modulation of the immune system is one of the hallmarks of cancer. It is now widely described that cancer cells are able to evade the immune response and thus establish immune tolerance. The exploration of the mechanisms underlying this ability of cancer cells has always attracted the scientific community and is the basis for the development of new promising cancer therapies. Recent evidence has highlighted how extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a mechanism by which cancer cells promote immune escape by inducing phenotypic changes on different immune cell populations. In this review, we will discuss the recent findings on the role of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) in regulating immune checkpoints, focusing on the PD-L1/PD-1 axis. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles (EVs); cancer immune tolerance; immune checkpoints; PD-1/PD-L1 axis extracellular vesicles (EVs); cancer immune tolerance; immune checkpoints; PD-1/PD-L1 axis
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Raimondo, S.; Pucci, M.; Alessandro, R.; Fontana, S. Extracellular Vesicles and Tumor-Immune Escape: Biological Functions and Clinical Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2286.

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