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n–3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Amides: New Avenues in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

1
Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Italy
2
Centro Sanitario, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072279
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 24 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapeutic Approaches)
Over the last decades a renewed interest in n−3 very long polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), derived mainly from fish oils in the human diet, has been observed because of their potential effects against cancer diseases, including breast carcinoma. These n−3 PUFAs mainly consist of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that, alone or in combination with anticancer agents, induce cell cycle arrest, autophagy, apoptosis, and tumor growth inhibition. A large number of molecular targets of n−3 PUFAs have been identified and multiple mechanisms appear to underlie their antineoplastic activities. Evidence exists that EPA and DHA also elicit anticancer effects by the conversion to their corresponding ethanolamide derivatives in cancer cells, by binding and activation of different receptors and distinct signaling pathways. Other conjugates with serotonin or dopamine have been found to exert anti-inflammatory activities in breast tumor microenvironment, indicating the importance of these compounds as modulators of tumor epithelial/stroma interplay. The objective of this review is to provide a general overview and an update of the current n−3 PUFA derivative research and to highlight intriguing aspects of the potential therapeutic benefits of these low-toxicity compounds in breast cancer treatment and care. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives; omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid conjugates; omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid amides; breast cancer; cannabinoid receptors; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid derivatives; omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid conjugates; omega−3 polyunsaturated fatty acid amides; breast cancer; cannabinoid receptors; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
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Giordano, C.; Plastina, P.; Barone, I.; Catalano, S.; Bonofiglio, D. n–3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Amides: New Avenues in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2279.

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