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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Mitigates Iron (Fe)-Deficiency Retardation in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Through the Enhancement of Fe Accumulation and Sulfur-Assisted Antioxidant Defense

1
Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Cheonan 31000, Korea
2
Molecular Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi 6205, Bangladesh
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062219
Received: 1 March 2020 / Revised: 16 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 23 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iron and Sulfur in Plants)
Iron (Fe)-deficiency is one of the major constraints affecting growth, yield and nutritional quality in plants. This study was performed to elucidate how arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) alleviate Fe-deficiency retardation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). AMF supplementation improved plant biomass, chlorophyll score, Fv/Fm (quantum efficiency of photosystem II), and Pi_ABS (photosynthesis performance index), and reduced cell death, electrolyte leakage, and hydrogen peroxide accumulation in alfalfa. Moreover, AMF enhanced ferric chelate reductase activity as well as Fe, Zn, S and P in alfalfa under Fe-deficiency. Although Fe-transporters (MsIRT1 and MsNramp1) did not induce in root but MsFRO1 significantly induced by AMF under Fe deficiency in roots, suggesting that AMF-mediated Fe enhancement is related to the bioavailability of Fe at rhizosphere/root apoplast rather than the upregulation of Fe transporters under Fe deficiency in alfalfa. Several S-transporters (MsSULTR1;1, MsSULTR1;2, MsSULTR1;3, and MsSULTR3;1) markedly increased following AMF supplementation with or without Fe-deficiency alfalfa. Our study further suggests that Fe uptake system is independently influenced by AMF regardless of the S status in alfalfa. However, the increase of S in alfalfa is correlated with the elevation of GR and S-metabolites (glutathione and cysteine) associated with antioxidant defense under Fe deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; symbiosis; Fe-deficiency; alfalfa; Medicago sativa; Fe-mobilization; Fe-chelate reductase arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; symbiosis; Fe-deficiency; alfalfa; Medicago sativa; Fe-mobilization; Fe-chelate reductase
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Rahman, M.A.; Parvin, M.; Das, U.; Ela, E.J.; Lee, S.-H.; Lee, K.-W.; Kabir, A.H. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Mitigates Iron (Fe)-Deficiency Retardation in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Through the Enhancement of Fe Accumulation and Sulfur-Assisted Antioxidant Defense. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 2219.

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