Graphene has received extensive scholarly attention for its extraordinary optical, electrical, and physicochemical properties, as well as its compatibility with silicon-based semiconductor processes. As a unique two-dimensional atomic crystal material, graphene has excellent mechanical properties, ultra-high carrier mobility, ultra-wide optical response spectrum, and strong polarization dependence effect, which make it have great potential in new optical and polarization devices. A series of new optical devices that are based on graphene have been developed, showing excellent performance and broad application prospects. In this paper, the recent research progress of polarizers, sensors, modulators, and detectors that are based on the polarization characteristics of graphene is reviewed. In particular, the polarization dependence effect and broadband absorption enhancement of graphene under total reflection structure are emphasized, which enhance the interaction between graphene and light and then provide a new direction for research of graphene polarization devices.
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