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Article

Development of a Modified Three-Day T-maze Protocol for Evaluating Learning and Memory Capacity of Adult Zebrafish

1
Department of Chemistry, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
2
Department of Bioscience Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
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Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 758307, Vietnam
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The Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas, Manila 1015, Philippines
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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Research Center for Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, Manila 1015, Philippines
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Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 11114, Taiwan
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Department of Biological Science & Technology College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan
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Department of Applied Chemistry, National Pingtung University, Pingtung 90003, Taiwan
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Center for Nanotechnology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1464; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041464
Received: 27 January 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 20 February 2020 / Published: 21 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish Models of Neurological Diseases and Disorders)
A T-maze test is an experimental approach that is used in congenital research. However, the food reward-based protocol for the T-maze test in fish has low efficiency and a long training period. The aim of this study is to facilitate the T-maze conditions by using a combination of the principles of passive avoidance and a spatial memory test. In our modified T-maze settings, electric shock punishment (1–2 V, 0.3–0.5 mA) is given at the left arm, with a green cue at the right arm. Also, the depth of both arms of the T-maze was increased. The parameters measured in our T-maze design were latency, freezing time, and time spent in different areas of the T-maze. We validated the utility of our modified T-maze protocol by showing the consistent finding of memory impairment in ZnCl2−treated fish, which has been previously detected with the passive avoidance test. In addition, we also tested the spatial memory performance of leptin a (lepa) mutants which displayed an obesity phenotype. The results showed that although the learning and memory performance for lepa KO fish were similar to control fish, they displayed a higher freezing behavior during the training phase. In conclusion, we have established a modified T-maze protocol that can be used to evaluate the anxiety, learning, and memory capacity of adult zebrafish within three days, for the first time. View Full-Text
Keywords: passive avoidance; ZnCl2; spatial memory; T-maze; leptin a; zebrafish passive avoidance; ZnCl2; spatial memory; T-maze; leptin a; zebrafish
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ngoc Hieu, B.T.; Ngoc Anh, N.T.; Audira, G.; Juniardi, S.; Liman, R.A.D.; Villaflores, O.B.; Lai, Y.-H.; Chen, J.-R.; Liang, S.-T.; Huang, J.-C.; Hsiao, C.-D. Development of a Modified Three-Day T-maze Protocol for Evaluating Learning and Memory Capacity of Adult Zebrafish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041464

AMA Style

Ngoc Hieu BT, Ngoc Anh NT, Audira G, Juniardi S, Liman RAD, Villaflores OB, Lai Y-H, Chen J-R, Liang S-T, Huang J-C, Hsiao C-D. Development of a Modified Three-Day T-maze Protocol for Evaluating Learning and Memory Capacity of Adult Zebrafish. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(4):1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041464

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ngoc Hieu, Bui T., Nguyen T. Ngoc Anh, Gilbert Audira, Stevhen Juniardi, Rhenz A.D. Liman, Oliver B. Villaflores, Yu-Heng Lai, Jung-Ren Chen, Sung-Tzu Liang, Jong-Chin Huang, and Chung-Der Hsiao. 2020. "Development of a Modified Three-Day T-maze Protocol for Evaluating Learning and Memory Capacity of Adult Zebrafish" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 4: 1464. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041464

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