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Open AccessArticle

Adipose Tissue and Brain Metabolic Responses to Western Diet—Is There a Similarity between the Two?

1
Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, 80134 Naples, Italy
2
Department of Bio-Agrofood Science, Institute for the Animal Production System in Mediterranean Environment, National Research Council Naples (CNR-ISPAAM), 80147 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 786; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030786
Received: 13 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 23 January 2020 / Published: 25 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Role of Lipids in Metabolism and Disease)
Dietary fats and sugars were identified as risk factors for overweight and neurodegeneration, especially in middle-age, an earlier stage of the aging process. Therefore, our aim was to study the metabolic response of both white adipose tissue and brain in middle aged rats fed a typical Western diet (high in saturated fats and fructose, HFF) and verify whether a similarity exists between the two tissues. Specific cyto/adipokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin), critical obesity-inflammatory markers (haptoglobin, lipocalin), and insulin signaling or survival protein network (insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS), Akt, Erk) were quantified in epididymal white adipose tissue (e-WAT), hippocampus, and frontal cortex. We found a significant increase of TNF-α in both e-WAT and hippocampus of HFF rats, while the expression of haptoglobin and lipocalin was differently affected in the various tissues. Interestingly, adiponectin amount was found significantly reduced in e-WAT, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of HFF rats. Insulin signaling was impaired by HFF diet in e-WAT but not in brain. The above changes were associated with the decrease in brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and synaptotagmin I and the increase in post-synaptic protein PSD-95 in HFF rats. Overall, our investigation supports for the first time similarities in the response of adipose tissue and brain to Western diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose tissue; hippocampus; frontal cortex; adiponectin; haptoglobin; lipocalin; BDNF; synaptic proteins adipose tissue; hippocampus; frontal cortex; adiponectin; haptoglobin; lipocalin; BDNF; synaptic proteins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mazzoli, A.; Spagnuolo, M.S.; Gatto, C.; Nazzaro, M.; Cancelliere, R.; Crescenzo, R.; Iossa, S.; Cigliano, L. Adipose Tissue and Brain Metabolic Responses to Western Diet—Is There a Similarity between the Two? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 786.

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