Leaky Gut and Autoimmunity: An Intricate Balance in Individuals Health and the Diseased State
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Baba Ghulam Shah Badshah University, Rajouri 185234, India
Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21249770
Received: 11 November 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gut Microbes and Gut Metabolites)
Damage to the tissue and the ruining of functions characterize autoimmune syndromes. This review centers around leaky gut syndromes and how they stimulate autoimmune pathogenesis. Lymphoid tissue commonly associated with the gut, together with the neuroendocrine network, collaborates with the intestinal epithelial wall, with its paracellular tight junctions, to maintain the balance, tolerance, and resistance to foreign/neo-antigens. The physiological regulator of paracellular tight junctions plays a vital role in transferring macromolecules across the intestinal barrier and thereby maintains immune response equilibrium. A new paradigm has explained the intricacies of disease development and proposed that the processes can be prevented if the interaction between the genetic factor and environmental causes is barred by re-instituting the intestinal wall function. The latest clinical evidence and animal models reinforce this current thought and offer the basis for innovative methodologies to thwart and treat autoimmune syndromes.