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Review

Implications of Altered Endosome and Lysosome Biology in Space Environments

1
Research in Space Environments Group, UniSA Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia
2
Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA
3
Department of Microgravity and Translational Regenerative Medicine, Clinic for Plastic, Aesthetic and Hand Surgery, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
4
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218205
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 30 October 2020 / Accepted: 31 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microgravity and Space Medicine)
Space exploration poses multiple challenges for mankind, not only on a technical level but also to the entire physiology of the space traveller. The human system must adapt to several environmental stressors, microgravity being one of them. Lysosomes are ubiquitous to every cell and essential for their homeostasis, playing significant roles in the regulation of autophagy, immunity, and adaptation of the organism to changes in their environment, to name a few. Dysfunction of the lysosomal system leads to age-related diseases, for example bone loss, reduced immune response or cancer. As these conditions have been shown to be accelerated following exposure to microgravity, this review elucidates the lysosomal response to real and simulated microgravity. Microgravity activates the endo-lysosomal system, with resulting impacts on bone loss, muscle atrophy and stem cell differentiation. The investigation of lysosomal adaptation to microgravity can be beneficial in the search for new biomarkers or therapeutic approaches to several disease pathologies on earth as well as the potential to mitigate pathophysiology during spaceflight. View Full-Text
Keywords: lysosomes; spaceflight; autophagy; bone; muscle; differentiation lysosomes; spaceflight; autophagy; bone; muscle; differentiation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Johnson, I.R.D.; Nguyen, C.T.; Wise, P.; Grimm, D. Implications of Altered Endosome and Lysosome Biology in Space Environments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218205

AMA Style

Johnson IRD, Nguyen CT, Wise P, Grimm D. Implications of Altered Endosome and Lysosome Biology in Space Environments. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(21):8205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218205

Chicago/Turabian Style

Johnson, Ian R.D., Catherine T. Nguyen, Petra Wise, and Daniela Grimm. 2020. "Implications of Altered Endosome and Lysosome Biology in Space Environments" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 21: 8205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218205

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