Environmental and intracellular factors often damage DNA, but multiple DNA repair pathways maintain genome integrity. In yeast, the 26S proteasome and its transcriptional regulator and substrate Rpn4 are involved in DNA damage resistance. Paradoxically, while proteasome dysfunction may induce hyper-resistance to DNA-damaging agents, Rpn4 malfunction sensitizes yeasts to these agents. Previously, we proposed that proteasome inhibition causes Rpn4 stabilization followed by the upregulation of Rpn4-dependent DNA repair genes and pathways. Here, we aimed to elucidate the key Rpn4 targets responsible for DNA damage hyper-resistance in proteasome mutants. We impaired the Rpn4-mediated regulation of candidate genes using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and tested the sensitivity of mutant strains to 4-NQO, MMS and zeocin. We found that the separate or simultaneous deregulation of 19S or 20S proteasome subcomplexes induced MAG1
in an Rpn4-dependent manner. Deregulation of RAD23
sensitized yeast to DNA damage. Genetic, epigenetic or dihydrocoumarin-mediated RAD52
repression restored the sensitivity of the proteasome mutants to DNA damage. Our results suggest that the Rpn4-mediated overexpression of DNA repair genes, especially RAD52
, defines the DNA damage hyper-resistant phenotype of proteasome mutants. The developed yeast model is useful for characterizing drugs that reverse the DNA damage hyper-resistance phenotypes of cancers.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited