Next Article in Journal
Mechanical and Biocompatibility Properties of Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics Derived from Salmon Fish Bone Wastes
Next Article in Special Issue
Erythrocyte, Platelet, Serum Ferritin, and P-Selectin Pathophysiology Implicated in Severe Hypercoagulation and Vascular Complications in COVID-19
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of the Synergistic Inhibition of IK(erg) and IK(DR) by Ribociclib, a Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitor
Review

Emerging Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in SARS-CoV-2-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Potential Therapeutic Targets

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Divisions of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3
Department of Cardiology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
4
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
5
Co-Director, Pulmonary Vascular Diseases Center, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
6
Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 8081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218081
Received: 4 October 2020 / Revised: 25 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Injuries in Severe Respiratory Infectious Diseases)
The 1918 influenza killed approximately 50 million people in a few short years, and now, the world is facing another pandemic. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused an international outbreak of a respiratory illness termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and rapidly spread to cause the worst pandemic since 1918. Recent clinical reports highlight an atypical presentation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients characterized by severe hypoxemia, an imbalance of the renin–angiotensin system, an increase in thrombogenic processes, and a cytokine release storm. These processes not only exacerbate lung injury but can also promote pulmonary vascular remodeling and vasoconstriction, which are hallmarks of pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH is a complication of ARDS that has received little attention; thus, we hypothesize that PH in COVID-19-induced ARDS represents an important target for disease amelioration. The mechanisms that can promote PH following SARS-CoV-2 infection are described. In this review article, we outline emerging mechanisms of pulmonary vascular dysfunction and outline potential treatment options that have been clinically tested. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute lung injury; respiratory viral infection; COVID-19; renin angiotensin system; Kallikrein–Kinin System; cytokine release storm; hypoxic-adenosinergic response; endothelin acute lung injury; respiratory viral infection; COVID-19; renin angiotensin system; Kallikrein–Kinin System; cytokine release storm; hypoxic-adenosinergic response; endothelin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Karmouty-Quintana, H.; Thandavarayan, R.A.; Keller, S.P.; Sahay, S.; Pandit, L.M.; Akkanti, B. Emerging Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in SARS-CoV-2-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Potential Therapeutic Targets. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 8081. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218081

AMA Style

Karmouty-Quintana H, Thandavarayan RA, Keller SP, Sahay S, Pandit LM, Akkanti B. Emerging Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in SARS-CoV-2-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Potential Therapeutic Targets. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(21):8081. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218081

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karmouty-Quintana, Harry, Rajarajan A. Thandavarayan, Steven P. Keller, Sandeep Sahay, Lavannya M. Pandit, and Bindu Akkanti. 2020. "Emerging Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in SARS-CoV-2-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Potential Therapeutic Targets" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 21: 8081. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21218081

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop