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Review

New Insights into Therapy-Induced Progression of Cancer

1
Center for Precision Genome Editing and Genetic Technologies for Biomedicine, Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Moscow 119435, Russia
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Laboratory of Cell Biology, Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Moscow 119435, Russia
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Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
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Faculty of Chemical-Pharmaceutical Technologies and Biomedical Drugs, Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow 125047, Russia
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Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny 141701, Russia
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Laboratory of Membrane Bioenergetics, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia
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Laboratory of Simple Systems, Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency, Moscow 119435, Russia
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Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117997, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(21), 7872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217872
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 21 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Attacking Cancer Progression and Metastasis)
The malignant tumor is a complex heterogeneous set of cells functioning in a no less heterogeneous microenvironment. Like any dynamic system, cancerous tumors evolve and undergo changes in response to external influences, including therapy. Initially, most tumors are susceptible to treatment. However, remaining cancer cells may rapidly reestablish the tumor after a temporary remission. These new populations of malignant cells usually have increased resistance not only to the first-line agent, but also to the second- and third-line drugs, leading to a significant decrease in patient survival. Multiple studies describe the mechanism of acquired therapy resistance. In past decades, it became clear that, in addition to the simple selection of pre-existing resistant clones, therapy induces a highly complicated and tightly regulated molecular response that allows tumors to adapt to current and even subsequent therapeutic interventions. This review summarizes mechanisms of acquired resistance, such as secondary genetic alterations, impaired function of drug transporters, and autophagy. Moreover, we describe less obvious molecular aspects of therapy resistance in cancers, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell cycle alterations, and the role of intercellular communication. Understanding these molecular mechanisms will be beneficial in finding novel therapeutic approaches for cancer therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer progression; chemotherapy; chemoresistance; tumor microenvironment; intercellular communication; cell cycle; EMT; autophagy cancer progression; chemotherapy; chemoresistance; tumor microenvironment; intercellular communication; cell cycle; EMT; autophagy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shnaider, P.V.; Ivanova, O.M.; Malyants, I.K.; Anufrieva, K.S.; Semenov, I.A.; Pavlyukov, M.S.; Lagarkova, M.A.; Govorun, V.M.; Shender, V.O. New Insights into Therapy-Induced Progression of Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7872. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217872

AMA Style

Shnaider PV, Ivanova OM, Malyants IK, Anufrieva KS, Semenov IA, Pavlyukov MS, Lagarkova MA, Govorun VM, Shender VO. New Insights into Therapy-Induced Progression of Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(21):7872. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217872

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shnaider, Polina V., Olga M. Ivanova, Irina K. Malyants, Ksenia S. Anufrieva, Ilya A. Semenov, Marat S. Pavlyukov, Maria A. Lagarkova, Vadim M. Govorun, and Victoria O. Shender. 2020. "New Insights into Therapy-Induced Progression of Cancer" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 21: 7872. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217872

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