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Open AccessArticle

Saliva microRNA Biomarkers of Cumulative Concussion

1
Department of Pediatrics, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
2
Department of Emergency Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
3
Department of Family Medicine, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
4
Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
5
Quadrant Biosciences, Institute for Human Performance, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
6
Department of Family Medicine, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA
7
Department of Athletic Training, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346, USA
8
School of Science, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601, USA
9
School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
10
Department of Exercise Science, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
11
US Army Medical Research Directorate-West, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, WA 98433, USA
12
Department of PT Education, Orthopedics, and Neuroscience, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
13
Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(20), 7758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207758
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 16 October 2020 / Published: 20 October 2020
Recurrent concussions increase risk for persistent post-concussion symptoms, and may lead to chronic neurocognitive deficits. Little is known about the molecular pathways that contribute to persistent concussion symptoms. We hypothesized that salivary measurement of microribonucleic acids (miRNAs), a class of epitranscriptional molecules implicated in concussion pathophysiology, would provide insights about the molecular cascade resulting from recurrent concussions. This hypothesis was tested in a case-control study involving 13 former professional football athletes with a history of recurrent concussion, and 18 age/sex-matched peers. Molecules of interest were further validated in a cross-sectional study of 310 younger individuals with a history of no concussion (n = 230), a single concussion (n = 56), or recurrent concussions (n = 24). There was no difference in neurocognitive performance between the former professional athletes and their peers, or among younger individuals with varying concussion exposures. However, younger individuals without prior concussion outperformed peers with prior concussion on three balance assessments. Twenty salivary miRNAs differed (adj. p < 0.05) between former professional athletes and their peers. Two of these (miR-28-3p and miR-339-3p) demonstrated relationships (p < 0.05) with the number of prior concussions reported by younger individuals. miR-28-3p and miR-339-5p may play a role in the pathophysiologic mechanism involved in cumulative concussion effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: saliva; microRNA; sports-related concussion; mild traumatic brain injury; biomarker saliva; microRNA; sports-related concussion; mild traumatic brain injury; biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hicks, S.D.; Olympia, R.P.; Onks, C.; Kim, R.Y.; Zhen, K.J.; Fedorchak, G.; DeVita, S.; Rangnekar, A.; Heller, M.; Zwibel, H.; Monteith, C.; Gagnon, Z.; McLoughlin, C.D.; Randall, J.; Madeira, M.; Campbell, T.R.; Fengler, E.; Dretsch, M.N.; Neville, C.; Middleton, F.A. Saliva microRNA Biomarkers of Cumulative Concussion. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7758. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207758

AMA Style

Hicks SD, Olympia RP, Onks C, Kim RY, Zhen KJ, Fedorchak G, DeVita S, Rangnekar A, Heller M, Zwibel H, Monteith C, Gagnon Z, McLoughlin CD, Randall J, Madeira M, Campbell TR, Fengler E, Dretsch MN, Neville C, Middleton FA. Saliva microRNA Biomarkers of Cumulative Concussion. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(20):7758. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207758

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hicks, Steven D.; Olympia, Robert P.; Onks, Cayce; Kim, Raymond Y.; Zhen, Kevin J.; Fedorchak, Gregory; DeVita, Samantha; Rangnekar, Aakanksha; Heller, Matthew; Zwibel, Hallie; Monteith, Chuck; Gagnon, Zofia; McLoughlin, Callan D.; Randall, Jason; Madeira, Miguel; Campbell, Thomas R.; Fengler, Elise; Dretsch, Michael N.; Neville, Christopher; Middleton, Frank A. 2020. "Saliva microRNA Biomarkers of Cumulative Concussion" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 20: 7758. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207758

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