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Open AccessArticle

The Role of Piper sarmentosum Aqueous Extract as a Bone Protective Agent, a Histomorphometric Study

1
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicines, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
3
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicines, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC), Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(20), 7715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21207715
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 27 September 2020 / Published: 19 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osteoporosis: From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapies 2.0)
Glucocorticoids are one of the causes of secondary osteoporosis. The aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum contains flavonoids that possess antioxidant effects. In this study, we determined the effects of aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract on structural, dynamic and static histomorphometric changes from osteoporotic bones of rats induced with glucocorticoids. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into four groups—Sham control group given vehicles (intramuscular (IM) olive oil and oral normal saline); AC: Adrenalectomised (Adrx) control group given IM dexamethasone (DEX) (120 μg/kg/day) and vehicle (oral normal saline); AP: Adrx group administered IM DEX (120 μg/kg/day) and aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract (125 mg/kg/day) orally; and AG: Adrx group administered IM DEX (120 μg/kg/day) and oral glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) (120 mg/kg/day). Histomorphometric measurements showed that the bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, osteoid and osteoblast surfaces, double-labelled trabecular surface, mineralizing surface and bone formation rate of rats given aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract were significantly increased (p < 0.05), whereas the trabecular separation and osteoclast surface were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). This study suggests that aqueous Piper sarmentosum leaf extract was able to prevent bone loss in prolonged glucocorticoid therapy. Thus, Piper sarmentosum has the potential to be used as an alternative medicine against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures in patients undergoing long-term glucocorticoid therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucocorticoid; histomorphometry; osteoporosis; Piper sarmentosum glucocorticoid; histomorphometry; osteoporosis; Piper sarmentosum
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Mohamad Asri, S.F.; Soelaiman, I.N.; Mohd Moklas, M.A.; Mohd Nor, N.H.; Mohamad Zainal, N.H.; Mohd Ramli, E.S. The Role of Piper sarmentosum Aqueous Extract as a Bone Protective Agent, a Histomorphometric Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7715.

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