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Open AccessReview

Unravelling the Roles of Nitrogen Nutrition in Plant Disease Defences

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Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Solid Organic Waste Utilization, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Solid Organic Wastes, Educational Ministry Engineering Center of Resource-saving fertilizers, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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Jiangsu Key Laboratory for the Research and Utilization of Plant Resources, Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210014, China
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Institute of Biological, Environmental and Rural Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3DA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020572
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 13 January 2020 / Published: 16 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Innate Immunity 3.0)
Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important elements that has a central impact on plant growth and yield. N is also widely involved in plant stress responses, but its roles in host-pathogen interactions are complex as each affects the other. In this review, we summarize the relationship between N nutrition and plant disease and stress its importance for both host and pathogen. From the perspective of the pathogen, we describe how N can affect the pathogen’s infection strategy, whether necrotrophic or biotrophic. N can influence the deployment of virulence factors such as type III secretion systems in bacterial pathogen or contribute nutrients such as gamma-aminobutyric acid to the invader. Considering the host, the association between N nutrition and plant defence is considered in terms of physical, biochemical and genetic mechanisms. Generally, N has negative effects on physical defences and the production of anti-microbial phytoalexins but positive effects on defence-related enzymes and proteins to affect local defence as well as systemic resistance. N nutrition can also influence defence via amino acid metabolism and hormone production to affect downstream defence-related gene expression via transcriptional regulation and nitric oxide (NO) production, which represents a direct link with N. Although the critical role of N nutrition in plant defences is stressed in this review, further work is urgently needed to provide a comprehensive understanding of how opposing virulence and defence mechanisms are influenced by interacting networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrogen; plant disease; physical; biochemical; molecular; disease defence nitrogen; plant disease; physical; biochemical; molecular; disease defence
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Sun, Y.; Wang, M.; Mur, L.A.J.; Shen, Q.; Guo, S. Unravelling the Roles of Nitrogen Nutrition in Plant Disease Defences. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 572.

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