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Open AccessArticle

The Mitochondrial Ca2+ Overload via Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Entry Contributes to an Anti-Melanoma Effect of Diallyl Trisulfide

1
Department of Dermatology, Nihon University Hospital, Tokyo 101-830, Japan
2
Plasma ChemiBio Laboratory, Nasushiobara, Tochigi 329-2813, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020491
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 1 January 2020 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Oncology)
Allium vegetables such as garlic (Allium sativum L.) are rich in organosulfur compounds that prevent human chronic diseases, including cancer. Of these, diallyl trisulfide (DATS) exhibits anticancer effects against a variety of tumors, including malignant melanoma. Although previous studies have shown that DATS increases intracellular calcium (Ca2+) in different cancer cell types, the role of Ca2+ in the anticancer effect is obscure. In the present study, we investigated the Ca2+ pathways involved in the anti-melanoma effect. We used melittin, the bee venom that can activate a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and apoptosis, as a reference. DATS increased apoptosis in human melanoma cell lines in a Ca2+-dependent manner. It also induced mitochondrial Ca2+ (Ca2+mit) overload through intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ fluxes independently of SOCE. Strikingly, acidification augmented Ca2+mit overload, and Ca2+ channel blockers reduced the effect more significantly under acidic pH conditions. On the contrary, acidification mitigated SOCE and Ca2+mit overload caused by melittin. Finally, Ca2+ channel blockers entirely inhibited the anti-melanoma effect of DATS. Our findings suggest that DATS explicitly evokes Ca2+mit overload via a non-SOCE, thereby displaying the anti-melanoma effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: diallyl trisulfide; melittin; melanoma; apoptosis; mitochondrial Ca2+; store-operated Ca2+ channel; acidification; Ca2+ channel blocker; voltage-gated Ca2+ channel diallyl trisulfide; melittin; melanoma; apoptosis; mitochondrial Ca2+; store-operated Ca2+ channel; acidification; Ca2+ channel blocker; voltage-gated Ca2+ channel
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Nakagawa, C.; Suzuki-Karasaki, M.; Suzuki-Karasaki, M.; Ochiai, T.; Suzuki-Karasaki, Y. The Mitochondrial Ca2+ Overload via Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Entry Contributes to an Anti-Melanoma Effect of Diallyl Trisulfide. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 491.

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