Aging-Related Disorders and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: A Critical Review for Prospect Mitoprotective Strategies Based on Mitochondrial Nutrient Mixtures
Department of Chemical Sciences, Federico II Naples University, I-80126 Naples, Italy
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Valencia-INCLIVA, CIBERER, E-46010 Valencia, Spain
Vall d’Hebron Institut de Recerca, E-08035 Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics of the “Federal Research Center of Fundamental and Translational Medicine”, Novosibirsk 630117, Russia
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnical University of Marche, I-60100 Ancona, Italy
Internal Medicine Unit, San Francesco d’Assisi Hospital, I-84020 Oliveto Citra (SA), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197060
Received: 28 August 2020 / Revised: 20 September 2020 / Accepted: 22 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Ageing and Diseases: Partie Deux)
A number of aging-related disorders (ARD) have been related to oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) in a well-established body of literature. Most studies focused on cardiovascular disorders (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and neurodegenerative disorders. Counteracting OS and MDF has been envisaged to improve the clinical management of ARD, and major roles have been assigned to three mitochondrial cofactors, also termed mitochondrial nutrients (MNs), i.e., α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and carnitine (CARN). These cofactors exert essential–and distinct—roles in mitochondrial machineries, along with strong antioxidant properties. Clinical trials have mostly relied on the use of only one MN to ARD-affected patients as, e.g., in the case of CoQ10 in CVD, or of ALA in T2D, possibly with the addition of other antioxidants. Only a few clinical and pre-clinical studies reported on the administration of two MNs, with beneficial outcomes, while no available studies reported on the combined administration of three MNs. Based on the literature also from pre-clinical studies, the present review is to recommend the design of clinical trials based on combinations of the three MNs.