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Article

Analysis of the Direct and Indirect Effects of Nanoparticle Exposure on Microglial and Neuronal Cells In Vitro

1
Group for Nano and Biotechnological Applications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Institute of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Synthetic Biology and Immunology, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
EN-FIST Centre of Excellence, Trg Osvobodilne fronte 13, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5
Institute of Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197030
Received: 5 July 2020 / Revised: 3 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-Biomaterial Interaction 2020)
Environmental or biomedical exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) can results in translocation and accumulation of NPs in the brain, which can lead to health-related problems. NPs have been shown to induce toxicity to neuronal cells through several direct mechanisms, but only a few studies have also explored the indirect effects of NPs, through consequences due to the exposure of neighboring cells to NPs. In this study, we analysed possible direct and indirect effects of NPs (polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated cobalt ferrite NP, TiO2 P25 and maghemite NPs) on immortalized mouse microglial cells and differentiated CAD mouse neuronal cells in monoculture (direct toxicity) or in transwell co-culture system (indirect toxicity). We showed that although the low NP concentrations (2–25 µg/mL) did not induce changes in cell viability, cytokine secretion or NF-κB activation of microglial cells, even low NP concentrations of 10 µg/mL can affect the cells and change their secretion of protein stress mediators. These can in turn influence neuronal cells in indirect exposure model. Indirect toxicity of NPs is an important and not adequately assessed mechanism of NP toxicity, since it not only affects cells on the exposure sites, but through secretion of signaling mediators, can also affect cells that do not come in direct contact with NPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticle; neurotoxicity; ROS; cytokine secretion; microglia; co-culture nanoparticle; neurotoxicity; ROS; cytokine secretion; microglia; co-culture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lojk, J.; Babič, L.; Sušjan, P.; Bregar, V.B.; Pavlin, M.; Hafner-Bratkovič, I.; Veranič, P. Analysis of the Direct and Indirect Effects of Nanoparticle Exposure on Microglial and Neuronal Cells In Vitro. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 7030. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197030

AMA Style

Lojk J, Babič L, Sušjan P, Bregar VB, Pavlin M, Hafner-Bratkovič I, Veranič P. Analysis of the Direct and Indirect Effects of Nanoparticle Exposure on Microglial and Neuronal Cells In Vitro. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(19):7030. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197030

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lojk, Jasna, Lea Babič, Petra Sušjan, Vladimir B. Bregar, Mojca Pavlin, Iva Hafner-Bratkovič, and Peter Veranič. 2020. "Analysis of the Direct and Indirect Effects of Nanoparticle Exposure on Microglial and Neuronal Cells In Vitro" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 19: 7030. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197030

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