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Open AccessReview

The Molecular Mechanisms by Which Vitamin D Prevents Insulin Resistance and Associated Disorders

1
Department of Nucleic Acid Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, 251 Pomorska Str., 92-213 Lodz, Poland
2
Central Teaching Hospital of the Medical University of Lodz, 251 Pomorska Str., 92-213 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186644
Received: 9 August 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
Numerous studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is very common in modern societies and is perceived as an important risk factor in the development of insulin resistance and related diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). While it is generally accepted that vitamin D is a regulator of bone homeostasis, its ability to counteract insulin resistance is subject to debate. The goal of this communication is to review the molecular mechanism by which vitamin D reduces insulin resistance and related complications. The university library, PUBMED, and Google Scholar were searched to find relevant studies to be summarized in this review article. Insulin resistance is accompanied by chronic hyperglycaemia and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that vitamin D exhibits indirect antioxidative properties and participates in the maintenance of normal resting ROS level. Appealingly, vitamin D reduces inflammation and regulates Ca2+ level in many cell types. Therefore, the beneficial actions of vitamin D include diminished insulin resistance which is observed as an improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; insulin resistance; adipose tissue; oxidative stress; sub-inflammation; epigenetic modification vitamin D deficiency; insulin resistance; adipose tissue; oxidative stress; sub-inflammation; epigenetic modification
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Szymczak-Pajor, I.; Drzewoski, J.; Śliwińska, A. The Molecular Mechanisms by Which Vitamin D Prevents Insulin Resistance and Associated Disorders. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6644.

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