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Rewiring of Lipid Metabolism in Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Obesity: Impact on Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
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Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms of Macrophage Polarisation and Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance

Cordeliers Research Centre, INSERM, IMMEDIAB Laboratory, Sorbonne Université, Université de Paris, F-75006 Paris, France
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5731; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165731
Received: 13 July 2020 / Revised: 26 July 2020 / Accepted: 8 August 2020 / Published: 10 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance in Peripheral Tissues)
Inflammation plays a key role in the development and progression of type-2 diabetes (T2D), a disease characterised by peripheral insulin resistance and systemic glucolipotoxicity. Visceral adipose tissue (AT) is the main source of inflammation early in the disease course. Macrophages are innate immune cells that populate all peripheral tissues, including AT. Dysregulated AT macrophage (ATM) responses to microenvironmental changes are at the root of aberrant inflammation and development of insulin resistance, locally and systemically. The inflammatory activation of macrophages is regulated at multiple levels: cell surface receptor stimulation, intracellular signalling, transcriptional and metabolic levels. This review will cover the main mechanisms involved in AT inflammation and insulin resistance in T2D. First, we will describe the physiological and pathological changes in AT that lead to inflammation and insulin resistance. We will next focus on the transcriptional and metabolic mechanisms described that lead to the activation of ATMs. We will discuss more novel metabolic mechanisms that influence macrophage polarisation in other disease or tissue contexts that may be relevant to future work in insulin resistance and T2D. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose tissue; inflammation; insulin resistance; immunometabolism; macrophages; type-2 diabetes; T2D adipose tissue; inflammation; insulin resistance; immunometabolism; macrophages; type-2 diabetes; T2D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Orliaguet, L.; Ejlalmanesh, T.; Alzaid, F. Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms of Macrophage Polarisation and Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5731.

AMA Style

Orliaguet L, Ejlalmanesh T, Alzaid F. Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms of Macrophage Polarisation and Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(16):5731.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orliaguet, Lucie; Ejlalmanesh, Tina; Alzaid, Fawaz. 2020. "Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms of Macrophage Polarisation and Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 16: 5731.

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