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MicroRNAs and Uveal Melanoma: Understanding the Diverse Role of These Small Molecular Regulators

1
Liverpool Ocular Oncology Research Group, Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L7 8TX, UK
2
Liverpool Clinical Laboratories, Liverpool University Hospital Foundation Trust, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5648; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165648
Received: 16 July 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 6 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Basis and Molecular Mechanisms of Uveal Melanomas)
Uveal melanoma (UM) is a rare tumour of the eye, characterised by a high propensity to metastasise in half of all patients, most frequently to the liver. Although there are effective treatment options for the primary tumour, once metastasis has occurred prognosis is poor, with overall survival limited to months. Currently, there are no effective treatments for metastatic UM, despite the tumour having a well-defined signalling pathway to which many therapies have been directed. In an effort to develop novel treatment approaches, understanding the role of other signalling molecules, such as microRNAs, is fundamental. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation, resulting in reduced target gene expression and subsequent protein translation. In UM, several dysregulated miRNAs have been proposed to play a functional role in disease progression, whereas others have been put forward as clinical biomarkers of high-risk disease following isolation from blood, plasma and exosomes. Most recently, analyses of large datasets have identified promising prognostic miRNA signatures and panels. This review navigates the plethora of aberrant miRNAs disclosed so far in UM, and maps these to signalling pathways, which could be targeted in future therapies for the disseminated disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: uveal melanoma (UM); miRNA; biomarkers uveal melanoma (UM); miRNA; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Aughton, K.; Kalirai, H.; Coupland, S.E. MicroRNAs and Uveal Melanoma: Understanding the Diverse Role of These Small Molecular Regulators. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5648. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165648

AMA Style

Aughton K, Kalirai H, Coupland SE. MicroRNAs and Uveal Melanoma: Understanding the Diverse Role of These Small Molecular Regulators. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(16):5648. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165648

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aughton, Karen; Kalirai, Helen; Coupland, Sarah E. 2020. "MicroRNAs and Uveal Melanoma: Understanding the Diverse Role of These Small Molecular Regulators" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 16: 5648. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165648

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