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Article

Transformation of Riccia fluitans, an Amphibious Liverwort Dynamically Responding to Environmental Changes

Botany Department, School of Biology and Chemistry, Osnabrück University, 49076 Osnabrück, Germany
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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(15), 5410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155410
Received: 2 July 2020 / Revised: 24 July 2020 / Accepted: 27 July 2020 / Published: 29 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Leaf Morphogenesis)
The colonization of land by streptophyte algae, ancestors of embryophyte plants, was a fundamental event in the history of life on earth. Bryophytes are early diversifying land plants that mark the transition from freshwater to terrestrial ecosystems. The amphibious liverwort Riccia fluitans can thrive in aquatic and terrestrial environments and thus represents an ideal organism to investigate this major transition. Therefore, we aimed to establish a transformation protocol for R. fluitans to make it amenable for genetic analyses. An Agrobacterium transformation procedure using R. fluitans callus tissue allows to generate stably transformed plants within 10 weeks. Furthermore, for comprehensive studies spanning all life stages, we demonstrate that the switch from vegetative to reproductive development can be induced by both flooding and poor nutrient availability. Interestingly, a single R. fluitans plant can consecutively adapt to different growth environments and forms distinctive and reversible features of the thallus, photosynthetically active tissue that is thus functionally similar to leaves of vascular plants. The morphological plasticity affecting vegetative growth, air pore formation, and rhizoid development realized by one genotype in response to two different environments makes R. fluitans ideal to study the adaptive molecular mechanisms enabling the colonialization of land by aquatic plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: Riccia fluitans; liverwort; adaptation; terrestrialization; transformation; sexual induction Riccia fluitans; liverwort; adaptation; terrestrialization; transformation; sexual induction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Althoff, F.; Zachgo, S. Transformation of Riccia fluitans, an Amphibious Liverwort Dynamically Responding to Environmental Changes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5410. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155410

AMA Style

Althoff F, Zachgo S. Transformation of Riccia fluitans, an Amphibious Liverwort Dynamically Responding to Environmental Changes. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(15):5410. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155410

Chicago/Turabian Style

Althoff, Felix, and Sabine Zachgo. 2020. "Transformation of Riccia fluitans, an Amphibious Liverwort Dynamically Responding to Environmental Changes" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 15: 5410. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21155410

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