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COVID-19: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis

Infectivology and Clinical Trials Research Department, Children’s Hospital Bambino Gesù, 00146 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5145;
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 17 July 2020 / Published: 21 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Coronavirus 2 (CoV) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV2) is causing a highly infectious pandemic pneumonia. Coronaviruses are positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect several animal species, causing symptoms that range from those similar to the common cold to severe respiratory syndrome. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the SARS-CoV2 functional receptor. Measures are currently undertaken worldwide to control the infection to avoid disruption of the social and economic equilibrium, especially in countries with poor healthcare resources. In a guarded optimistic view, we hope that the undertaken preventive and treatment measures will at least contribute to contain viral diffusion, attenuate activity, or even eliminate SARS-CoV2. In this review, we discuss emerging perspectives for prevention/treatment of COVID-19 infection. In addition to vaccines under development, passive immunization is an open opportunity since patients develop neutralizing antibodies. A full spectrum of potential drugs for COVID-19 infections could in turn affect virus binding or enzymatic activities involved in viral replication and transcription. Furthermore, clinical trials are currently evaluating the safety and efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as tocilizumab. Bioinformatics may allow characterization of specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses; thus, CoV2 T cells’ frequency can be correlated with the disease severity and outcome. Combinatorial antibody phage display may be empowered to identify the immune repertoire of CoV2-specific neutralizing antibodies. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV2 infection; prevention; treatment; immune system; outbreak SARS-CoV2 infection; prevention; treatment; immune system; outbreak
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fierabracci, A.; Arena, A.; Rossi, P. COVID-19: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5145.

AMA Style

Fierabracci A, Arena A, Rossi P. COVID-19: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(14):5145.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fierabracci, Alessandra, Andrea Arena, and Paolo Rossi. 2020. "COVID-19: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 14: 5145.

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