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COVID-19: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis

Infectivology and Clinical Trials Research Department, Children’s Hospital Bambino Gesù, 00146 Rome, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5145; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145145
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 16 July 2020 / Accepted: 17 July 2020 / Published: 21 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
Coronavirus 2 (CoV) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV2) is causing a highly infectious pandemic pneumonia. Coronaviruses are positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect several animal species, causing symptoms that range from those similar to the common cold to severe respiratory syndrome. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the SARS-CoV2 functional receptor. Measures are currently undertaken worldwide to control the infection to avoid disruption of the social and economic equilibrium, especially in countries with poor healthcare resources. In a guarded optimistic view, we hope that the undertaken preventive and treatment measures will at least contribute to contain viral diffusion, attenuate activity, or even eliminate SARS-CoV2. In this review, we discuss emerging perspectives for prevention/treatment of COVID-19 infection. In addition to vaccines under development, passive immunization is an open opportunity since patients develop neutralizing antibodies. A full spectrum of potential drugs for COVID-19 infections could in turn affect virus binding or enzymatic activities involved in viral replication and transcription. Furthermore, clinical trials are currently evaluating the safety and efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs, such as tocilizumab. Bioinformatics may allow characterization of specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses; thus, CoV2 T cells’ frequency can be correlated with the disease severity and outcome. Combinatorial antibody phage display may be empowered to identify the immune repertoire of CoV2-specific neutralizing antibodies. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV2 infection; prevention; treatment; immune system; outbreak SARS-CoV2 infection; prevention; treatment; immune system; outbreak
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fierabracci, A.; Arena, A.; Rossi, P. COVID-19: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5145.

AMA Style

Fierabracci A, Arena A, Rossi P. COVID-19: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(14):5145.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fierabracci, Alessandra; Arena, Andrea; Rossi, Paolo. 2020. "COVID-19: A Review on Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prophylaxis" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 14: 5145.

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