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Vesicular Transport of Encapsulated microRNA between Glial and Neuronal Cells

by 1,2,3,4,* and 5
1
Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, Neuroscience Center and Department of Ophthalmology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
2
LSU Neuroscience Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
3
Department of Ophthalmology, LSU Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
4
Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
5
Alchem Biotech Research, Toronto, ON M5S1A8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5078; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145078
Received: 27 June 2020 / Revised: 9 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 18 July 2020
Exosomes (EXs) and extracellular microvesicles (EMVs) represent a diverse assortment of plasma membrane-derived nanovesicles, 30–1000 nm in diameter, released by all cell lineages of the central nervous system (CNS). They are examples of a very active and dynamic form of extracellular communication and the conveyance of biological information transfer essential to maintain homeostatic neurological functions and contain complex molecular cargoes representative of the cytoplasm of their cells of origin. These molecular cargoes include various mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, cytokines, chemokines, carbohydrates, microRNAs (miRNA) and messenger RNAs (mRNA) and other components, including end-stage neurotoxic and pathogenic metabolic products, such as amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. Brain microglia, for example, respond to both acute CNS injuries and degenerative diseases with complex reactions via the induction of a pro-inflammatory phenotype, and secrete EXs and EMVs enriched in selective pathogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) such as miRNA-34a, miRNA-125b, miRNA-146a, miRNA-155, and others that are known to promote neuro-inflammation, induce complement activation, disrupt innate–immune signaling and deregulate the expression of neuron-specific phosphoproteins involved in neurotropism and synaptic signaling. This communication will review our current understanding of the trafficking of miRNA-containing EXs and EMVs from astrocytes and “activated pro-inflammatory” microglia to target neurons in neurodegenerative diseases with an emphasis on Alzheimer’s disease wherever possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; extracellular microvesicles (EMV); exosomes (EX); microRNA-146a Alzheimer’s disease; extracellular microvesicles (EMV); exosomes (EX); microRNA-146a
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lukiw, W.J.; Pogue, A.I. Vesicular Transport of Encapsulated microRNA between Glial and Neuronal Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5078. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145078

AMA Style

Lukiw WJ, Pogue AI. Vesicular Transport of Encapsulated microRNA between Glial and Neuronal Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(14):5078. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145078

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lukiw, Walter J., and Aileen I. Pogue 2020. "Vesicular Transport of Encapsulated microRNA between Glial and Neuronal Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 14: 5078. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21145078

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