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Cardiomyopathies and Adrenal Diseases

Department of Translational and Precision Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy
Clinical Internal, Anesthesiological and Cardiovascular Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma, Italy
MEBIC Consortium, San Raffaele Open University, and IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, 00185 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the study.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 5047;
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 14 July 2020 / Published: 17 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Cardiomyopathies are myocardial disorders in which heart muscle is structurally and/or functionally abnormal. Previously, structural cardiomyocyte disorders due to adrenal diseases, such as hyperaldosteronism, hypercortisolism, and hypercatecholaminism, were misunderstood, and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) was not performed because was considered dangerous and too invasive. Recent data confirm that, if performed in experienced centers, EMB is a safe technique and gives precious information about physiopathological processes implied in clinical abnormalities in patients with different systemic disturbances. In this review, we illustrate the most important features in patients affected by primary aldosteronism (PA), Cushing’s syndrome (CS), and pheochromocytoma (PHEO). Then, we critically describe microscopic and ultrastructural aspects that have emerged from the newest EMB studies. In PA, the autonomous hypersecretion of aldosterone induces the alteration of ion and water homeostasis, intracellular vacuolization, and swelling; interstitial oedema could be a peculiar feature of myocardial toxicity. In CS, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and myofibrillolysis could be related to higher expression of atrogin-1. Finally, in PHEO, the hypercontraction of myofilaments with the formation of contraction bands and occasional cellular necrosis has been observed. We expect to clear the role of EMB in patients with cardiomyopathies and adrenal disease, and we believe EMB is a valid tool to implement new management and therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiomyopathy; endomyocardial biopsy; primary aldosteronism; Cushing’s syndrome; pheochromocytoma; adrenal disease cardiomyopathy; endomyocardial biopsy; primary aldosteronism; Cushing’s syndrome; pheochromocytoma; adrenal disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petramala, L.; Concistrè, A.; Olmati, F.; Saracino, V.; Chimenti, C.; Frustaci, A.; Russo, M.A.; Letizia, C. Cardiomyopathies and Adrenal Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 5047.

AMA Style

Petramala L, Concistrè A, Olmati F, Saracino V, Chimenti C, Frustaci A, Russo MA, Letizia C. Cardiomyopathies and Adrenal Diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(14):5047.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petramala, Luigi; Concistrè, Antonio; Olmati, Federica; Saracino, Vincenza; Chimenti, Cristina; Frustaci, Andrea; Russo, Matteo A.; Letizia, Claudio. 2020. "Cardiomyopathies and Adrenal Diseases" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 14: 5047.

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