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Review

COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Lysosomes and Lysosomotropism Implicate New Treatment Strategies and Personal Risks

1
Institute of Precision Medicine, Medical and Life Sciences Faculty, Furtwangen University, Jakob-Kienzle-Str. 17, D-78054 Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany
2
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Freiburg, Albertstraße 25, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany
3
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Rostock, Schillingallee 35, D-18057 Rostock, Germany
4
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Hospital of Magdeburg, Birkenallee 34, D-39130 Magdeburg, Germany
5
Fraunhofer Institute IZI, Leipzig, EXIM Department, Schillingallee 68, D-18057 Rostock, Germany
6
Organic Chemistry, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
7
Associated Member, Faculty of Science, Tuebingen University, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(14), 4953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144953
Received: 9 June 2020 / Revised: 6 July 2020 / Accepted: 8 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Diagnostics and Pathology in SARS-CoV-2-Related Diseases)
In line with SARS and MERS, the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic is one of the largest challenges in medicine and health care worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 provides numerous therapeutic targets, each of them promising, but not leading to the success of therapy to date. Neither an antiviral nor an immunomodulatory therapy in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 or pre-exposure prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 has proved to be effective. In this review, we try to close the gap and point out the likely relationships among lysosomotropism, increasing lysosomal pH, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and disease process, and we deduce an approach for the treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19, and cytokine release syndrome (CRS)/cytokine storm triggered by bacteria or viruses. Lysosomotropic compounds affect prominent inflammatory messengers (e.g., IL-1B, CCL4, CCL20, and IL-6), cathepsin-L-dependent viral entry of host cells, and products of lysosomal enzymes that promote endothelial stress response in systemic inflammation. As supported by recent clinical data, patients who have already taken lysosomotropic drugs for other pre-existing conditions likely benefit from this treatment in the COVID-19 pandemic. The early administration of a combination of antivirals such as remdesivir and lysosomotropic drugs, such as the antibiotics teicoplanin or dalbavancin, seems to be able to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and transition to COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; lysosomotropic compounds; lysosome; cytokine storm; cytokine release syndrome; viral host cell entry; approved active compounds; lysosomotropism; cathepsin L SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; lysosomotropic compounds; lysosome; cytokine storm; cytokine release syndrome; viral host cell entry; approved active compounds; lysosomotropism; cathepsin L
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blaess, M.; Kaiser, L.; Sauer, M.; Csuk, R.; Deigner, H.-P. COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Lysosomes and Lysosomotropism Implicate New Treatment Strategies and Personal Risks. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144953

AMA Style

Blaess M, Kaiser L, Sauer M, Csuk R, Deigner H-P. COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Lysosomes and Lysosomotropism Implicate New Treatment Strategies and Personal Risks. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(14):4953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144953

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blaess, Markus, Lars Kaiser, Martin Sauer, René Csuk, and Hans-Peter Deigner. 2020. "COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Lysosomes and Lysosomotropism Implicate New Treatment Strategies and Personal Risks" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 14: 4953. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21144953

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