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Open AccessReview

Vimentin as a Multifaceted Player and Potential Therapeutic Target in Viral Infections

1
Department of Neurology and Center for Advanced Research on Diagnostic Assays, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
2
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, UAM-CSIC. Nicolás Cabrera, 1, Campus de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Structural and Chemical Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas Margarita Salas, CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4675; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134675
Received: 6 June 2020 / Revised: 28 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Intermediate Filaments)
Vimentin is an intermediate filament protein that plays key roles in integration of cytoskeletal functions, and therefore in basic cellular processes such as cell division and migration. Consequently, vimentin has complex implications in pathophysiology. Vimentin is required for a proper immune response, but it can also act as an autoantigen in autoimmune diseases or as a damage signal. Although vimentin is a predominantly cytoplasmic protein, it can also appear at extracellular locations, either in a secreted form or at the surface of numerous cell types, often in relation to cell activation, inflammation, injury or senescence. Cell surface targeting of vimentin appears to associate with the occurrence of certain posttranslational modifications, such as phosphorylation and/or oxidative damage. At the cell surface, vimentin can act as a receptor for bacterial and viral pathogens. Indeed, vimentin has been shown to play important roles in virus attachment and entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV), dengue and encephalitis viruses, among others. Moreover, the presence of vimentin in specific virus-targeted cells and its induction by proinflammatory cytokines and tissue damage contribute to its implication in viral infection. Here, we recapitulate some of the pathophysiological implications of vimentin, including the involvement of cell surface vimentin in interaction with pathogens, with a special focus on its role as a cellular receptor or co-receptor for viruses. In addition, we provide a perspective on approaches to target vimentin, including antibodies or chemical agents that could modulate these interactions to potentially interfere with viral pathogenesis, which could be useful when multi-target antiviral strategies are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: vimentin; cell surface vimentin; SARS-CoV; vimentin–pathogen interactions; anti-vimentin autoantibodies; inflammation; intermediate filaments; posttranslational modifications; tissue damage and repair; immune response vimentin; cell surface vimentin; SARS-CoV; vimentin–pathogen interactions; anti-vimentin autoantibodies; inflammation; intermediate filaments; posttranslational modifications; tissue damage and repair; immune response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramos, I.; Stamatakis, K.; Oeste, C.L.; Pérez-Sala, D. Vimentin as a Multifaceted Player and Potential Therapeutic Target in Viral Infections. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4675. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134675

AMA Style

Ramos I, Stamatakis K, Oeste CL, Pérez-Sala D. Vimentin as a Multifaceted Player and Potential Therapeutic Target in Viral Infections. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(13):4675. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134675

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramos, Irene; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Oeste, Clara L.; Pérez-Sala, Dolores. 2020. "Vimentin as a Multifaceted Player and Potential Therapeutic Target in Viral Infections" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 21, no. 13: 4675. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134675

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