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Review

HMGB1-Mediated Neuroinflammatory Responses in Brain Injuries: Potential Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities

1
Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia
2
Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134609
Received: 12 May 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotective Strategies 2020)
Brain injuries are devastating conditions, representing a global cause of mortality and morbidity, with no effective treatment to date. Increased evidence supports the role of neuroinflammation in driving several forms of brain injuries. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a pro-inflammatory-like cytokine with an initiator role in neuroinflammation that has been implicated in Traumatic brain injury (TBI) as well as in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Herein, we discuss the implication of HMGB1-induced neuroinflammatory responses in these brain injuries, mediated through binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) and other inflammatory mediators. Moreover, we provide evidence on the biomarker potential of HMGB1 and the significance of its nucleocytoplasmic translocation during brain injuries along with the promising neuroprotective effects observed upon HMGB1 inhibition/neutralization in TBI and EBI induced by SAH. Overall, this review addresses the current advances on neuroinflammation driven by HMGB1 in brain injuries indicating a future treatment opportunity that may overcome current therapeutic gaps. View Full-Text
Keywords: high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1); traumatic brain injury (TBI); subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); neuroinflammation; biomarker high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1); traumatic brain injury (TBI); subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); neuroinflammation; biomarker
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MDPI and ACS Style

Paudel, Y.N.; Angelopoulou, E.; Piperi, C.; Othman, I.; Shaikh, M.F. HMGB1-Mediated Neuroinflammatory Responses in Brain Injuries: Potential Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4609. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134609

AMA Style

Paudel YN, Angelopoulou E, Piperi C, Othman I, Shaikh MF. HMGB1-Mediated Neuroinflammatory Responses in Brain Injuries: Potential Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(13):4609. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Paudel, Yam Nath, Efthalia Angelopoulou, Christina Piperi, Iekhsan Othman, and Mohd. Farooq Shaikh. 2020. "HMGB1-Mediated Neuroinflammatory Responses in Brain Injuries: Potential Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 13: 4609. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134609

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