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Review

Genetic Markers in Lung Cancer Diagnosis: A Review

1
Department of Medical Laboratory Diagnostics, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Haematology, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Lower Silesian Oncology Center, 53-413 Wroclaw, Poland
3
Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, 53-413 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4569; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134569
Received: 1 June 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 27 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Advances in Cancer Genetics)
Lung cancer is the most often diagnosed cancer in the world and the most frequent cause of cancer death. The prognosis for lung cancer is relatively poor and 75% of patients are diagnosed at its advanced stage. The currently used diagnostic tools are not sensitive enough and do not enable diagnosis at the early stage of the disease. Therefore, searching for new methods of early and accurate diagnosis of lung cancer is crucial for its effective treatment. Lung cancer is the result of multistage carcinogenesis with gradually increasing genetic and epigenetic changes. Screening for the characteristic genetic markers could enable the diagnosis of lung cancer at its early stage. The aim of this review was the summarization of both the preclinical and clinical approaches in the genetic diagnostics of lung cancer. The advancement of molecular strategies and analytic platforms makes it possible to analyze the genome changes leading to cancer development—i.e., the potential biomarkers of lung cancer. In the reviewed studies, the diagnostic values of microsatellite changes, DNA hypermethylation, and p53 and KRAS gene mutations, as well as microRNAs expression, have been analyzed as potential genetic markers. It seems that microRNAs and their expression profiles have the greatest diagnostic potential value in lung cancer diagnosis, but their quantification requires standardization. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; carcinogenesis; genetic markers; epigenetic markers; liquid biopsy; NGS; genetic alterations; molecular landscape; microRNA; molecular heterogeneity lung cancer; carcinogenesis; genetic markers; epigenetic markers; liquid biopsy; NGS; genetic alterations; molecular landscape; microRNA; molecular heterogeneity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wadowska, K.; Bil-Lula, I.; Trembecki, Ł.; Śliwińska-Mossoń, M. Genetic Markers in Lung Cancer Diagnosis: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4569. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134569

AMA Style

Wadowska K, Bil-Lula I, Trembecki Ł, Śliwińska-Mossoń M. Genetic Markers in Lung Cancer Diagnosis: A Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(13):4569. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134569

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wadowska, Katarzyna, Iwona Bil-Lula, Łukasz Trembecki, and Mariola Śliwińska-Mossoń. 2020. "Genetic Markers in Lung Cancer Diagnosis: A Review" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 13: 4569. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134569

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