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Review

HRness in Breast and Ovarian Cancers

1
Department of Medical Biology and Pathology, Gustave Roussy, Cancer Genetics Laboratory, Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif, France
2
Department of Clinical Oncology, A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo 01509-010, Brazil
3
Department of Genetics, Institut Curie, 75005 Paris, France
4
PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(11), 3850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113850
Received: 13 March 2020 / Revised: 25 April 2020 / Accepted: 28 April 2020 / Published: 28 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impact of Cancer Predisposition on Tumor Biology and Treatment)
Ovarian and breast cancers are currently defined by the main pathways involved in the tumorigenesis. The majority are carcinomas, originating from epithelial cells that are in constant division and subjected to cyclical variations of the estrogen stimulus during the female hormonal cycle, therefore being vulnerable to DNA damage. A portion of breast and ovarian carcinomas arises in the context of DNA repair defects, in which genetic instability is the backdrop for cancer initiation and progression. For these tumors, DNA repair deficiency is now increasingly recognized as a target for therapeutics. In hereditary breast/ovarian cancers (HBOC), tumors with BRCA1/2 mutations present an impairment of DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). For many years, BRCA1/2 mutations were only screened on germline DNA, but now they are also searched at the tumor level to personalize treatment. The reason of the inactivation of this pathway remains uncertain for most cases, even in the presence of a HR-deficient signature. Evidence indicates that identifying the mechanism of HR inactivation should improve both genetic counseling and therapeutic response, since they can be useful as new biomarkers of response. View Full-Text
Keywords: homologous recombination deficiency; DNA repair; breast cancer tumorigenesis; ovarian cancer tumorigenesis; BRCA1; BRCA2; hereditary breast cancer; hereditary ovarian cancer homologous recombination deficiency; DNA repair; breast cancer tumorigenesis; ovarian cancer tumorigenesis; BRCA1; BRCA2; hereditary breast cancer; hereditary ovarian cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santana dos Santos, E.; Lallemand, F.; Petitalot, A.; Caputo, S.M.; Rouleau, E. HRness in Breast and Ovarian Cancers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3850. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113850

AMA Style

Santana dos Santos E, Lallemand F, Petitalot A, Caputo SM, Rouleau E. HRness in Breast and Ovarian Cancers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(11):3850. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113850

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santana dos Santos, Elizabeth, François Lallemand, Ambre Petitalot, Sandrine M. Caputo, and Etienne Rouleau. 2020. "HRness in Breast and Ovarian Cancers" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 11: 3850. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113850

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