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Hadrontherapy Interactions in Molecular and Cellular Biology

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre François Baclesse, 14000 Caen, France
2
Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire IN2P3/ENSICAEN-UMR6534-Unicaen-Normandie Université, 14000 Caen, France
3
ARCHADE Research Community, 14000 Caen, France
4
Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, CEA, CNRS, ISTCT/CERVOxy Group, GIP CYCERON, 14000 Caen, France
5
Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, UNIROUEN, ABTE, 14000 Caen, France
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LARIA, iRCM, François Jacob Institute, DRF-CEA, 14000 Caen, France
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UMR6252 CIMAP, CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-Université de Caen Normandie, 14000 Caen, France
8
Sino-Swed Molecular Bio-Medicine Research Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China
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Department of Life and Environmental Physics, Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, PO Box MG-63, 077125 Magurele, Romania
10
Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 91-95, R-050095 Bucharest, Romania
11
Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Henri Becquerel, 76000 Rouen, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010133
Received: 22 November 2019 / Revised: 17 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Counteracting Radioresistance Using the Optimization of Radiotherapy)
The resistance of cancer cells to radiotherapy is a major issue in the curative treatment of cancer patients. This resistance can be intrinsic or acquired after irradiation and has various definitions, depending on the endpoint that is chosen in assessing the response to radiation. This phenomenon might be strengthened by the radiosensitivity of surrounding healthy tissues. Sensitive organs near the tumor that is to be treated can be affected by direct irradiation or experience nontargeted reactions, leading to early or late effects that disrupt the quality of life of patients. For several decades, new modalities of irradiation that involve accelerated particles have been available, such as proton therapy and carbon therapy, raising the possibility of specifically targeting the tumor volume. The goal of this review is to examine the up-to-date radiobiological and clinical aspects of hadrontherapy, a discipline that is maturing, with promising applications. We first describe the physical and biological advantages of particles and their application in cancer treatment. The contribution of the microenvironment and surrounding healthy tissues to tumor radioresistance is then discussed, in relation to imaging and accurate visualization of potentially resistant hypoxic areas using dedicated markers, to identify patients and tumors that could benefit from hadrontherapy over conventional irradiation. Finally, we consider combined treatment strategies to improve the particle therapy of radioresistant cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; radioresistance; particle therapy; hadrontherapy; hypoxia cancer; radioresistance; particle therapy; hadrontherapy; hypoxia
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Thariat, J.; Valable, S.; Laurent, C.; Haghdoost, S.; Pérès, E.A.; Bernaudin, M.; Sichel, F.; Lesueur, P.; Césaire, M.; Petit, E.; Ferré, A.E.; Saintigny, Y.; Skog, S.; Tudor, M.; Gérard, M.; Thureau, S.; Habrand, J.-L.; Balosso, J.; Chevalier, F. Hadrontherapy Interactions in Molecular and Cellular Biology. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 133.

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