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Divergent Approaches to Virulence in C. albicans and C. glabrata: Two Sides of the Same Coin

Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
iBB-Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Biological Sciences Research Group, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2345;
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 11 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Virulence Factors)
PDF [1040 KB, uploaded 11 May 2019]


Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are the two most prevalent etiologic agents of candidiasis worldwide. Although both are recognized as pathogenic, their choice of virulence traits is highly divergent. Indeed, it appears that these different approaches to fungal virulence may be equally successful in causing human candidiasis. In this review, the virulence mechanisms employed by C. albicans and C. glabrata are analyzed, with emphasis on the differences between the two systems. Pathogenesis features considered in this paper include dimorphic growth, secreted enzymes and signaling molecules, and stress resistance mechanisms. The consequences of these traits in tissue invasion, biofilm formation, immune system evasion, and macrophage escape, in a species dependent manner, are discussed. This review highlights the observation that C. albicans and C. glabrata follow different paths leading to a similar outcome. It also highlights the lack of knowledge on some of the specific mechanisms underlying C. glabrata pathogenesis, which deserve future scrutiny. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida; host-pathogen interaction; virulence; biofilm formation; morphology; immune evasion Candida; host-pathogen interaction; virulence; biofilm formation; morphology; immune evasion

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Galocha, M.; Pais, P.; Cavalheiro, M.; Pereira, D.; Viana, R.; Teixeira, M.C. Divergent Approaches to Virulence in C. albicans and C. glabrata: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2345.

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