Angioplasty aiming at vascular dilatation causes endothelial denudation and induces complex inflammatory responses that affect vascular healing, including delayed reendothelialization and excessive neointima proliferation. Resveratrol is known for multiple beneficial effects on the vessel wall after systemic treatment or sustained release from a stent. It is also used as an additive on drug-coated balloon catheters (DCB). In this study, the effect of a single dose of resveratrol, three days to four weeks after administration as a balloon coating during angioplasty, was investigated. Sixteen pigs underwent angioplasty with resveratrol-coated or uncoated balloon catheters in coronary and peripheral arteries. Vessels were overstretched by approximately 20% to enhance vessel wall injury and to produce persistent vessel wall irritation. A significantly reduced number of micro vessels and macrophages in the adventitia, as well as an improved reendothelialization of the vessel lumen, were observed in resveratrol-treated peripheral arteries. The coronaries had a much higher injury score compared to peripheral vessels. Resveratrol-dependent reduction of macrophages, micro vessels or acceleration of reendothelialization was not evident in the coronary vessels. Additionally, no significant effect on neointima proliferation and inflammation score in either vessel territory was observed as a result of resveratrol treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that resveratrol diminishes the inflammatory response and promotes vascular healing in peripheral arteries. These same effects are absent in more severely injured coronary arteries.
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