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Article

Consumption of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice with or without Vitamin C Supplementation Increases the Excretion of Urinary Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-nitroso Compounds in Humans

1
Department of Toxicogenomics, GROW-school for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, P.O Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
Department of Food & Nutritional Sciences, School of Chemistry, Food and Pharmacy, The University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092277
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 26 April 2019 / Accepted: 7 May 2019 / Published: 8 May 2019
Consumption of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BRJ) by athletes induces a number of beneficial physiological health effects, which are linked to the formation of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrate. However, following a secondary pathway, NO may also lead to the formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), which are known to be carcinogenic in 39 animal species. The extent of the formation of NOCs is modulated by various other dietary factors, such as vitamin C. The present study investigates the endogenous formation of NOCs after BRJ intake and the impact of vitamin C on urinary NOC excretion. In a randomized, controlled trial, 29 healthy recreationally active volunteers ingested BRJ with or without additional vitamin C supplements for one week. A significant increase of urinary apparent total N-nitroso Compounds (ATNC) was found after one dose (5 to 47 nmol/mmol: p < 0.0001) and a further increase was found after seven consecutive doses of BRJ (104 nmol/mmol: p < 0.0001). Vitamin C supplementation inhibited ATNC increase after one dose (16 compared to 72 nmol/mmol, p < 0.01), but not after seven daily doses. This is the first study that shows that BRJ supplementation leads to an increase in formation of potentially carcinogenic NOCs. In order to protect athlete’s health, it is therefore important to be cautious with chronic use of BRJ to enhance sports performances. View Full-Text
Keywords: Beetroot juice; human dietary intervention; nitrate; nitrite; N-nitroso compounds; vitamin C Beetroot juice; human dietary intervention; nitrate; nitrite; N-nitroso compounds; vitamin C
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MDPI and ACS Style

Berends, J.E.; van den Berg, L.M.M.; Guggeis, M.A.; Henckens, N.F.T.; Hossein, I.J.; de Joode, M.E.J.R.; Zamani, H.; van Pelt, K.A.A.J.; Beelen, N.A.; Kuhnle, G.G.; de Kok, T.M.C.M.; Van Breda, S.G.J. Consumption of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice with or without Vitamin C Supplementation Increases the Excretion of Urinary Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-nitroso Compounds in Humans. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2277. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092277

AMA Style

Berends JE, van den Berg LMM, Guggeis MA, Henckens NFT, Hossein IJ, de Joode MEJR, Zamani H, van Pelt KAAJ, Beelen NA, Kuhnle GG, de Kok TMCM, Van Breda SGJ. Consumption of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice with or without Vitamin C Supplementation Increases the Excretion of Urinary Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-nitroso Compounds in Humans. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(9):2277. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092277

Chicago/Turabian Style

Berends, Julia E., Lauri M.M. van den Berg, Martina A. Guggeis, Nikki F.T. Henckens, Israt J. Hossein, Minke E.J.R. de Joode, Hossy Zamani, Kirsten A.A.J. van Pelt, Nicky A. Beelen, Gunter G. Kuhnle, Theo M.C.M. de Kok, and Simone G.J. Van Breda. 2019. "Consumption of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice with or without Vitamin C Supplementation Increases the Excretion of Urinary Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-nitroso Compounds in Humans" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 9: 2277. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092277

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