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Molecular Mechanisms of Kidney Injury and Repair in Arterial Hypertension
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Glomerular Hematuria: Cause or Consequence of Renal Inflammation?

1
Renal, Vascular and Diabetes Research Laboratory. Fundacion Jimenez Diaz University Hospital-Health Research Institute (FIIS-FJD), Autonoma University of Madrid (UAM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Cell Biology, Physiology, and Immunology, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC), University of Cordoba, 14014 Cordoba, Spain
3
Department of Nephrology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092205
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 21 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kidney Inflammation, Injury and Regeneration)
Glomerular hematuria is a cardinal symptom of renal disease. Glomerular hematuria may be classified as microhematuria or macrohematuria according to the number of red blood cells in urine. Recent evidence suggests a pathological role of persistent glomerular microhematuria in the progression of renal disease. Moreover, gross hematuria, or macrohematuria, promotes acute kidney injury (AKI), with subsequent impairment of renal function in a high proportion of patients. In this pathological context, hemoglobin, heme, or iron released from red blood cells in the urinary space may cause direct tubular cell injury, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and further monocyte/macrophage recruitment. The aim of this manuscript is to review the role of glomerular hematuria in kidney injury, the role of inflammation as cause and consequence of glomerular hematuria, and to discuss novel therapies to combat hematuria. View Full-Text
Keywords: hematuria; inflammation; oxidative stress; tubular injury; AKI; chronic kidney disease (CKD) hematuria; inflammation; oxidative stress; tubular injury; AKI; chronic kidney disease (CKD)
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Moreno, J.A.; Sevillano, Á.; Gutiérrez, E.; Guerrero-Hue, M.; Vázquez-Carballo, C.; Yuste, C.; Herencia, C.; García-Caballero, C.; Praga, M.; Egido, J. Glomerular Hematuria: Cause or Consequence of Renal Inflammation? Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2205.

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