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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081892

Physiological Responses of Jurkat Lymphocytes to Simulated Microgravity Conditions

1
Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2
Centro Scienze dell’ Invecchiamento e Medicina Traslazionale (CeSI-MeT), University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3
Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
4
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
5
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 06100 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 13 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation of Living Organisms in Space: From Mammals to Plants)
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Abstract

The presence of microgravity conditions deeply affects the human body functions at the systemic, organ and cellular levels. This study aimed to investigate the effects induced by simulated-microgravity on non-stimulated Jurkat lymphocytes, an immune cell phenotype considered as a biosensor of the body responses, in order to depict at the cellular level the effects of such a peculiar condition. Jurkat cells were grown at 1 g or on random positioning machine simulating microgravity. On these cells we performed: morphological, cell cycle and proliferation analyses using cytofluorimetric and staining protocols—intracellular Ca2+, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondria membrane potential and O2 measurements using fluorescent probes—aconitase and mitochondria activity, glucose and lactate content using colorimetric assays. After the first exposure days, the cells showed a more homogeneous roundish shape, an increased proliferation rate, metabolic and detoxifying activity resulted in decreased intracellular Ca2+ and ROS. In the late exposure time, the cells adapted to the new environmental condition. Our non-activated proliferating Jurkat cells, even if responsive to altered external forces, adapted to the new environmental condition showing a healthy status. In order to define the cellular mechanism(s) triggered by microgravity, developing standardized experimental approaches and controlled cell culture and simulator conditions is strongly recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: simulated-microgravity; lymphocytes; oxidative stress; cytoskeletal remodelling; cell shape simulated-microgravity; lymphocytes; oxidative stress; cytoskeletal remodelling; cell shape
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Morabito, C.; Lanuti, P.; Caprara, G.A.; Marchisio, M.; Bizzarri, M.; Guarnieri, S.; Mariggiò, M.A. Physiological Responses of Jurkat Lymphocytes to Simulated Microgravity Conditions. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1892.

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