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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1882;

PRRs and NB-LRRs: From Signal Perception to Activation of Plant Innate Immunity

Institute of Insect Sciences, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-ecosystems, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 February 2019 / Revised: 2 April 2019 / Accepted: 10 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
PDF [665 KB, uploaded 18 April 2019]


To ward off pathogens and pests, plants use a sophisticated immune system. They use pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), as well as nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) domains, for detecting nonindigenous molecular signatures from pathogens. Plant PRRs induce local and systemic immunity. Plasma-membrane-localized PRRs are the main components of multiprotein complexes having additional transmembrane and cytosolic kinases. Topical research involving proteins and their interactive partners, along with transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation, has extended our understanding of R-gene-mediated plant immunity. The unique LRR domain conformation helps in the best utilization of a surface area and essentially mediates protein–protein interactions. Genome-wide analyses of inter- and intraspecies PRRs and NB-LRRs offer innovative information about their working and evolution. We reviewed plant immune responses with relevance to PRRs and NB-LRRs. This article focuses on the significant functional diversity, pathogen-recognition mechanisms, and subcellular compartmentalization of plant PRRs and NB-LRRs. We highlight the potential biotechnological application of PRRs and NB-LRRs to enhance broad-spectrum disease resistance in crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: defense; plants; PAMPs; pathogenesis; transcriptional activity defense; plants; PAMPs; pathogenesis; transcriptional activity

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Noman, A.; Aqeel, M.; Lou, Y. PRRs and NB-LRRs: From Signal Perception to Activation of Plant Innate Immunity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1882.

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