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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071705

Effects of High Temperature on Embryological Development and Hormone Profile in Flowers and Leaves of Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

1
Department of Plant Physiology, University of Agriculture, Podłużna 3, 30-239 Kraków, Poland
2
Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
3
Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology, Niezapominajek 21, 30-239 Kraków, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 2 April 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract

Common buckwheat is a valuable crop, mainly due to the beneficial chemical composition of its seeds. However, buckwheat cultivation is limited because of unstable seed yield. The most important reasons for the low yield include embryo and flower abortion. The aim of this work is to verify whether high temperature affects embryological development in this plant species. The experiment was conducted on plants of a Polish cultivar ‘Panda’ and strain PA15, in which the percentage of degenerating embryo sacs was previously determined and amounted to 32% and 10%, respectively. The plants were cultivated in phytotronic conditions at 20 °C (control), and 30 °C (thermal stress). The embryological processes and hormonal profiles in flowers at various developmental stages (buds, open flowers, and wilted flowers) and in donor leaves were analyzed in two-month-old plants. Significant effects of thermal stress on the defective development of female gametophytes and hormone content in flowers and leaves were observed. Ovules were much more sensitive to high temperature than pollen grains in both genotypes. Pollen viability remained unaffected at 30 °C in both genotypes. The effect of temperature on female gametophyte development was visible in cv. Panda but not in PA15 buds. A drastic reduction in the number of properly developed embryo sacs was clear in open flowers at 30 °C in both genotypes. A considerable increase in abscisic acid in open flowers ready for fertilization may serve as a signal inducing flower senescence observed in the next few days. Based on embryological analyses and hormone profiles in flowers, we conclude that cv. ‘Panda’ is more sensitive to thermal stress than strain PA15, mainly due to a much earlier response to thermal stress involving impairment of embryological processes already in the flower buds. View Full-Text
Keywords: abscisic acid; auxin; common buckwheat; cytokinins; embryo sacs; gibberellins; jasmonic acid; pollen grains; thermal stress; salicylic acid abscisic acid; auxin; common buckwheat; cytokinins; embryo sacs; gibberellins; jasmonic acid; pollen grains; thermal stress; salicylic acid
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Płażek, A.; Słomka, A.; Kopeć, P.; Dziurka, M.; Hornyák, M.; Sychta, K.; Pastuszak, J.; Dubert, F. Effects of High Temperature on Embryological Development and Hormone Profile in Flowers and Leaves of Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1705.

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