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Review

Mechanisms of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

1
Department of Interdisciplinary Intensive Care, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, 31-501 Krakow, Poland
2
Department of Pain Research and Treatment, Jagiellonian University, Medical College, 31-501 Krakow, Poland
3
Chair and Department of Palliative Medicine Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 61-245 Poznan, Poland
4
Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Pain Pharmacology, 31-343 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061451
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 16 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms of Pain)
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is one of the most frequent side effects caused by antineoplastic agents, with a prevalence from 19% to over 85%. Clinically, CIPN is a mostly sensory neuropathy that may be accompanied by motor and autonomic changes of varying intensity and duration. Due to its high prevalence among cancer patients, CIPN constitutes a major problem for both cancer patients and survivors as well as for their health care providers, especially because, at the moment, there is no single effective method of preventing CIPN; moreover, the possibilities of treating this syndrome are very limited. There are six main substance groups that cause damage to peripheral sensory, motor and autonomic neurons, which result in the development of CIPN: platinum-based antineoplastic agents, vinca alkaloids, epothilones (ixabepilone), taxanes, proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib) and immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide). Among them, the most neurotoxic are platinum-based agents, taxanes, ixabepilone and thalidomide; other less neurotoxic but also commonly used drugs are bortezomib and vinca alkaloids. This paper reviews the clinical picture of CIPN and the neurotoxicity mechanisms of the most common antineoplastic agents. A better understanding of the risk factors and underlying mechanisms of CIPN is needed to develop effective preventive and therapeutic strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemotherapy-induced neuropathy; cancer pain; drug neurotoxicity; pathophysiological mechanisms; anticancer drugs chemotherapy-induced neuropathy; cancer pain; drug neurotoxicity; pathophysiological mechanisms; anticancer drugs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zajączkowska, R.; Kocot-Kępska, M.; Leppert, W.; Wrzosek, A.; Mika, J.; Wordliczek, J. Mechanisms of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1451. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061451

AMA Style

Zajączkowska R, Kocot-Kępska M, Leppert W, Wrzosek A, Mika J, Wordliczek J. Mechanisms of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(6):1451. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061451

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zajączkowska, Renata, Magdalena Kocot-Kępska, Wojciech Leppert, Anna Wrzosek, Joanna Mika, and Jerzy Wordliczek. 2019. "Mechanisms of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 6: 1451. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061451

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