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ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes Involved in Pyrethroid Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles sinensis: Genome-Wide Identification, Characteristics, Phylogenetics, and Expression Profile

1,2,†,‡, 2,‡, 2,‡, 2,‡, 2,‡ and 2,*,†,‡
1
School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China
2
Chongqing Key Laboratory of Vector Insects, Institute of Entomology and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These institutions contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1409; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061409
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
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Abstract

background: The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters family is one of the largest families of membrane proteins existing in all living organisms. Pyrethroid resistance has become the largest unique obstacle for mosquito control worldwide. ABC transporters are thought to be associated with pyrethroid resistance in some agricultural pests, but little information is known for mosquitoes. Herein, we investigated the diversity, location, characteristics, phylogenetics, and evolution of ABC transporter family of genes in the Anopheles sinensis genome, and identified the ABC transporter genes associated with pyrethroid resistance through expression profiles using RNA-seq and qPCR. Results: 61 ABC transporter genes are identified and divided into eight subfamilies (ABCA-H), located on 22 different scaffolds. Phylogenetic and evolution analyses with ABC transporters of A. gambiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens suggest that the ABCD, ABCG, and ABCH subfamilies are monophyly, and that the ABCC and ABCG subfamilies have experienced a gene duplication event. Both RNA-seq and qPCR analyses show that the AsABCG28 gene is uniquely significantly upregulated gene in all three field pyrethroid-resistant populations (Anhui, Chongqing, and Yunnan provinces) in comparison with a laboratory-susceptible strain from Jiangsu province. The AsABCG28 is significantly upregulated at 12-h and 24-h after deltamethrin exposure in three-day-old female adults. Conclusion: This study provides the information frame for ABC transporter subfamily of genes, and lays an important basis for the better understanding and further research of ABC transporter function in insecticide toxification. The AsABCG28 gene is associated with pyrethroid detoxification, and it functions at later period in the detoxification process for xenobiotics transportation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Anopheles sinensis; ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters; pyrethroid resistance; deltamethrin; gene expression; RNAseq analysis Anopheles sinensis; ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters; pyrethroid resistance; deltamethrin; gene expression; RNAseq analysis
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He, Q.; Yan, Z.; Si, F.; Zhou, Y.; Fu, W.; Chen, B. ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Genes Involved in Pyrethroid Resistance in the Malaria Vector Anopheles sinensis: Genome-Wide Identification, Characteristics, Phylogenetics, and Expression Profile. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1409.

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