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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1170;

Dual-Specificity Phosphatases in Neuroblastoma Cell Growth and Differentiation

Biomarkers in Cancer Unit, Biocruces-Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia 48903, Spain
Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital HF Radiumhospitalet, Oslo 0424, Norway
Department of Pathology, Cruces University Hospital, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Barakaldo, Bizkaia 48903, Spain
Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, Bizkaia 48903, Spain
IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao 48011, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 March 2019 / Published: 7 March 2019
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Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) are important regulators of neuronal cell growth and differentiation by targeting proteins essential to neuronal survival in signaling pathways, among which the MAP kinases (MAPKs) stand out. DUSPs include the MAPK phosphatases (MKPs), a family of enzymes that directly dephosphorylate MAPKs, as well as the small-size atypical DUSPs, a group of low molecular-weight enzymes which display more heterogeneous substrate specificity. Neuroblastoma (NB) is a malignancy intimately associated with the course of neuronal and neuroendocrine cell differentiation, and constitutes the source of more common extracranial solid pediatric tumors. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involvement of MKPs and small-size atypical DUSPs in NB cell growth and differentiation, and discuss the potential of DUSPs as predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human NB. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuroblastoma; neuronal differentiation; dual-specificity phosphatases; MAP kinases; MAP kinase phosphatases; atypical dual-specificity phosphatases neuroblastoma; neuronal differentiation; dual-specificity phosphatases; MAP kinases; MAP kinase phosphatases; atypical dual-specificity phosphatases

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Nunes-Xavier, C.E.; Zaldumbide, L.; Aurtenetxe, O.; López-Almaraz, R.; López, J.I.; Pulido, R. Dual-Specificity Phosphatases in Neuroblastoma Cell Growth and Differentiation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1170.

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