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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051128

Chemerin Isoforms and Activity in Obesity

1
Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg University Hospital, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
2
Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Regensburg University Hospital, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 28 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipokines 2.0)
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Abstract

Overweight and adiposity are risk factors for several diseases, like type 2 diabetes and cancer. White adipose tissue is a major source for adipokines, comprising a diverse group of proteins exerting various functions. Chemerin is one of these proteins whose systemic levels are increased in obesity. Chemerin is involved in different physiological and pathophysiological processes and it regulates adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and immune response, suggesting a vital role in metabolic health. The majority of serum chemerin is biologically inert. Different proteases are involved in the C-terminal processing of chemerin and generate diverse isoforms that vary in their activity. Distribution of chemerin variants was analyzed in adipose tissues and plasma of lean and obese humans and mice. The Tango bioassay, which is suitable to monitor the activation of the beta-arrestin 2 pathway, was used to determine the ex-vivo activation of chemerin receptors by systemic chemerin. Further, the expression of the chemerin receptors was analyzed in adipose tissue, liver, and skeletal muscle. Present investigations assume that increased systemic chemerin in human obesity is not accompanied by higher biologic activity. More research is needed to fully understand the pathways that control chemerin processing and chemerin signaling. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteolysis; Tango bioassay; biologic activity; chemerin receptors proteolysis; Tango bioassay; biologic activity; chemerin receptors
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Buechler, C.; Feder, S.; Haberl, E.M.; Aslanidis, C. Chemerin Isoforms and Activity in Obesity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1128.

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