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Review

Sample Delivery Media for Serial Crystallography

by 1,2
1
Division of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
2
Institute of Life Science and Natural Resources, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051094
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
X-ray crystallographic methods can be used to visualize macromolecules at high resolution. This provides an understanding of molecular mechanisms and an insight into drug development and rational engineering of enzymes used in the industry. Although conventional synchrotron-based X-ray crystallography remains a powerful tool for understanding molecular function, it has experimental limitations, including radiation damage, cryogenic temperature, and static structural information. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) using synchrotron X-ray have recently gained attention as research methods for visualizing macromolecules at room temperature without causing or reducing radiation damage, respectively. These techniques provide more biologically relevant structures than traditional X-ray crystallography at cryogenic temperatures using a single crystal. Serial femtosecond crystallography techniques visualize the dynamics of macromolecules through time-resolved experiments. In serial crystallography (SX), one of the most important aspects is the delivery of crystal samples efficiently, reliably, and continuously to an X-ray interaction point. A viscous delivery medium, such as a carrier matrix, dramatically reduces sample consumption, contributing to the success of SX experiments. This review discusses the preparation and criteria for the selection and development of a sample delivery medium and its application for SX. View Full-Text
Keywords: serial crystallography (SX); serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX); serial millisecond crystallography (SMX); X-ray free electron laser (XFEL); sample delivery; delivery medium; carrier matrix; viscous medium serial crystallography (SX); serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX); serial millisecond crystallography (SMX); X-ray free electron laser (XFEL); sample delivery; delivery medium; carrier matrix; viscous medium
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nam, K.H. Sample Delivery Media for Serial Crystallography. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1094. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051094

AMA Style

Nam KH. Sample Delivery Media for Serial Crystallography. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(5):1094. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051094

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nam, Ki H. 2019. "Sample Delivery Media for Serial Crystallography" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 5: 1094. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051094

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