X-ray crystallographic methods can be used to visualize macromolecules at high resolution. This provides an understanding of molecular mechanisms and an insight into drug development and rational engineering of enzymes used in the industry. Although conventional synchrotron-based X-ray crystallography remains a powerful tool for understanding molecular function, it has experimental limitations, including radiation damage, cryogenic temperature, and static structural information. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and serial millisecond crystallography (SMX) using synchrotron X-ray have recently gained attention as research methods for visualizing macromolecules at room temperature without causing or reducing radiation damage, respectively. These techniques provide more biologically relevant structures than traditional X-ray crystallography at cryogenic temperatures using a single crystal. Serial femtosecond crystallography techniques visualize the dynamics of macromolecules through time-resolved experiments. In serial crystallography (SX), one of the most important aspects is the delivery of crystal samples efficiently, reliably, and continuously to an X-ray interaction point. A viscous delivery medium, such as a carrier matrix, dramatically reduces sample consumption, contributing to the success of SX experiments. This review discusses the preparation and criteria for the selection and development of a sample delivery medium and its application for SX.
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