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Open AccessArticle

The Involvement of Ethylene in Calcium-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Cucumber under Salt Stress

1
College of Horticulture, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
2
Horticulture Department, FoA University For Development Studies, Box TL 1350 Tamale, Ghana
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Authors contributed equally to the work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(5), 1047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20051047
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 23 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Root Development in Plants)
Calcium and ethylene are essential in plant growth and development. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcium and ethylene on adventitious root formation in cucumber explants under salt stress. The results revealed that 10 μM calcium chloride (CaCl2) or 0.1 μM ethrel (ethylene donor) treatment have a maximum biological effect on promoting the adventitious rooting in cucumber under salt stress. Meanwhile, we investigated that removal of ethylene suppressed calcium ion (Ca2+)-induced the formation of adventitious root under salt stress indicated that ethylene participates in this process. Moreover, the application of Ca2+ promoted the activities of 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO), as well as the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) and ethylene under salt stress. Furthermore, we discovered that Ca2+ greatly up-regulated the expression level of CsACS3, CsACO1 and CsACO2 under salt stress. Meanwhile, Ca2+ significantly down-regulated CsETR1, CsETR2, CsERS, and CsCTR1, but positively up-regulated the expression of CsEIN2 and CsEIN3 under salt stress; however, the application of Ca2+ chelators or channel inhibitors could obviously reverse the effects of Ca2+ on the expression of the above genes. These results indicated that Ca2+ played a vital role in promoting the adventitious root development in cucumber under salt stress through regulating endogenous ethylene synthesis and activating the ethylene signal transduction pathway. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium; ethylene; adventitious rooting; ethylene biosynthesis; salt stress calcium; ethylene; adventitious rooting; ethylene biosynthesis; salt stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yu, J.; Niu, L.; Yu, J.; Liao, W.; Xie, J.; Lv, J.; Feng, Z.; Hu, L.; Dawuda, M.M. The Involvement of Ethylene in Calcium-Induced Adventitious Root Formation in Cucumber under Salt Stress. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1047.

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