Bladder Cancer Diagnosis and Follow-Up: The Current Status and Possible Role of Extracellular Vesicles
AbstractDiagnostic methods currently used for bladder cancer are cystoscopy and urine cytology. Cystoscopy is an invasive tool and has low sensitivity for carcinoma in situ. Urine cytology is non-invasive, is a low-cost method, and has a high specificity but low sensitivity for low-grade urothelial tumors. Despite the search for urinary biomarkers for the early and non-invasive detection of bladder cancer, no biomarkers are used at the present in daily clinical practice. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently studied as a promising source of biomarkers because of their role in intercellular communication and tumor progression. In this review, we give an overview of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved urine tests to detect bladder cancer and why their use is not widespread in clinical practice. We also include non-FDA approved urinary biomarkers in this review. We describe the role of EVs in bladder cancer and their possible role as biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer patients. We review recently discovered EV-derived biomarkers for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. View Full-Text
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Oeyen, E.; Hoekx, L.; De Wachter, S.; Baldewijns, M.; Ameye, F.; Mertens, I. Bladder Cancer Diagnosis and Follow-Up: The Current Status and Possible Role of Extracellular Vesicles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 821.
Oeyen E, Hoekx L, De Wachter S, Baldewijns M, Ameye F, Mertens I. Bladder Cancer Diagnosis and Follow-Up: The Current Status and Possible Role of Extracellular Vesicles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(4):821.Chicago/Turabian Style
Oeyen, Eline; Hoekx, Lucien; De Wachter, Stefan; Baldewijns, Marcella; Ameye, Filip; Mertens, Inge. 2019. "Bladder Cancer Diagnosis and Follow-Up: The Current Status and Possible Role of Extracellular Vesicles." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 4: 821.
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