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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 821;

Bladder Cancer Diagnosis and Follow-Up: The Current Status and Possible Role of Extracellular Vesicles

Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), 2400 Mol, Belgium
Centre for Proteomics (CFP), University of Antwerp, 2020 Antwerp, Belgium
Urology Department, Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), 2650 Edegem, Belgium
Pathological Anatomy Department, Antwerp University Hospital (UZA), 2650 Edegem, Belgium
Urology Department, General Hospital Maria Middelares Ghent, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles and Metastatic Niche)
Full-Text   |   PDF [285 KB, uploaded 14 February 2019]   |   Review Reports


Diagnostic methods currently used for bladder cancer are cystoscopy and urine cytology. Cystoscopy is an invasive tool and has low sensitivity for carcinoma in situ. Urine cytology is non-invasive, is a low-cost method, and has a high specificity but low sensitivity for low-grade urothelial tumors. Despite the search for urinary biomarkers for the early and non-invasive detection of bladder cancer, no biomarkers are used at the present in daily clinical practice. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been recently studied as a promising source of biomarkers because of their role in intercellular communication and tumor progression. In this review, we give an overview of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved urine tests to detect bladder cancer and why their use is not widespread in clinical practice. We also include non-FDA approved urinary biomarkers in this review. We describe the role of EVs in bladder cancer and their possible role as biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer patients. We review recently discovered EV-derived biomarkers for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: extracellular vesicles; bladder cancer; biomarkers; urine extracellular vesicles; bladder cancer; biomarkers; urine
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Oeyen, E.; Hoekx, L.; De Wachter, S.; Baldewijns, M.; Ameye, F.; Mertens, I. Bladder Cancer Diagnosis and Follow-Up: The Current Status and Possible Role of Extracellular Vesicles. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 821.

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