Next Article in Journal
High-Throughput Virtual Screening, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, and Enzyme Kinetics Identified ZINC84525623 as a Potential Inhibitor of NDM-1
Previous Article in Journal
Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 Binds to Neutrophils Impairing Their Chemotaxis through a Mac-1 Dependent Interaction
Article Menu
Issue 4 (February-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040818

Identification of Key Aroma Compounds in Type I Sourdough-Based Chinese Steamed Bread: Application of Untargeted Metabolomics Analysisp

1,2
,
1,2
,
3
,
1,2
,
1,2,4
,
1,2,*
and
1,2,4,5
1
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
2
School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
3
Suzhou Tourism and Finance Institute., Suzhou 215104, China
4
National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China
5
Beijing Innovation Centre of Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University (BTBU), Beijing 100048, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2365 KB, uploaded 14 February 2019]   |  

Abstract

Untargeted metabolomics is a valuable tool to analyze metabolite profiles or aroma fingerprints of different food products. However, less attention has been paid to determining the aroma characteristics of Chinese steamed breads (CSBs) by using this approach. The aim of this work was to evaluate the key aroma compounds and their potential generation pathway in Chinese steamed bread produced with type I sourdough by a metabolomics approach. Based on the aroma characteristics analysis, CSBs produced with type I sourdough and baker’s yeast were clearly distinguishable by principal component analysis (PCA) scores plot. A total of 13 compounds in sourdough-based steamed breads were given the status of discriminant markers through the untargeted metabolomics analysis. According to the odor activity values (OAVs) of discriminant aroma markers, ethyl acetate (fruity), ethyl lactate (caramel-like), hexyl acetate (fruity), (E)-2-nonenal (fatty) and 2-pentylfuran (fruity) were validated as the key volatile compounds in the breads produced with type I sourdough as compared to the baker’s yeast leavened steamed bread. The metabolite analysis in proofed dough indicated that esters are mainly generated by the reaction between acid and alcohol during steaming, and aldehydes are derived from the oxidation of palmitoleic acid and linoleic acid during proofing and steaming. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chinese steamed bread; type I sourdough; metabolomics; odor activity value; aroma compounds Chinese steamed bread; type I sourdough; metabolomics; odor activity value; aroma compounds
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, B.; Sadiq, F.A.; Cai, Y.; Fan, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, J.; Chen, W. Identification of Key Aroma Compounds in Type I Sourdough-Based Chinese Steamed Bread: Application of Untargeted Metabolomics Analysisp. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 818.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top