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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 778;

The Metallome of Lung Cancer and its Potential Use as Biomarker

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Research Center on Health and Environment (RENSMA), 21007 Huelva, Spain
Pneumology Area of Juan Ramón Jiménez Hospital, 21005 Huelva, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 28 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 12 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallomics: Integrated Biosciences for Elements)
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Carcinogenesis is a very complex process in which metals have been found to be critically involved. In this sense, a disturbed redox status and metal dyshomeostasis take place during the onset and progression of cancer, and it is well-known that trace elements participate in the activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and metalloproteins, in which they usually participate as cofactors. Until now, the role of metals in cancer have been studied as an effect, establishing that cancer onset and progression affects the disturbance of the natural chemical form of the essential elements in the metabolism. However, it has also been studied as a cause, giving insights related to the high exposure of metals giving a place to the carcinogenic process. On the other hand, the chemical species of the metal or metallobiomolecule is very important, since it finally affects the biological activity or the toxicological potential of the element and their mobility across different biological compartments. Moreover, the importance of metal homeostasis and metals interactions in biology has also been demonstrated, and the ratios between some elements were found to be different in cancer patients; however, the interplay of elements is rarely reported. This review focuses on the critical role of metals in lung cancer, which is one of the most insidious forms of cancer, with special attention to the analytical approaches and pitfalls to extract metals and their species from tissues and biofluids, determining the ratios of metals, obtaining classification profiles, and finally defining the metallome of lung cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; metals; homeostasis; ICP-MS; elemental ratios; classification lung cancer; metals; homeostasis; ICP-MS; elemental ratios; classification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Callejón-Leblic, B.; Arias-Borrego, A.; Pereira-Vega, A.; Gómez-Ariza, J.L.; García-Barrera, T. The Metallome of Lung Cancer and its Potential Use as Biomarker. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 778.

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