Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is considered a musculoskeletal disorder associated to other symptoms including chronic pain. Since the hypothesis of FMS etiogenesis is consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, we evaluated the pathophysiological correlation among these factors studying some proteins involved in the mitochondrial homeostasis. We focused our attention on the roles of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α), mitofusin2 (Mfn2), and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in reserpine-induced myalgic (RIM) rats that manifest fibromyalgia-like chronic pain symptoms. First, we underlined that RIM rats are a good model for studying the pathophysiology of FMS and moreover, we found that PGC-1α, Mfn2, and CoQ10 are involved in FMS. In fact, their expressions were reduced in gastrocnemius muscle determining an incorrect mitochondrial homeostasis. Today, none of the currently available drugs are fully effective against the symptoms of this disease and they, often, induce several adverse events; hence, many scientists have taken on the challenge of searching for non-pharmacological treatments. Another goal of this study was therefore the evaluation of the potential benefits of melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine having several functions including its potent capacity to induce antioxidant enzymes and to determine the protective or reparative mechanisms in the cells. We observed that melatonin supplementation significantly preserved all the studied parameters, counteracting oxidative stress in RIM rats and confirming that this indoleamine should be taken in consideration for improving health and/or counteract mitochondrial related diseases.
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