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Curbing Lipids: Impacts ON Cancer and Viral Infection

by Anika Dutta and Neelam Sharma-Walia *,†
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 644; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030644
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 22 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Lipids and Lipidomics 2018)
Lipids play a fundamental role in maintaining normal function in healthy cells. Their functions include signaling, storing energy, and acting as the central structural component of cell membranes. Alteration of lipid metabolism is a prominent feature of cancer, as cancer cells must modify their metabolism to fulfill the demands of their accelerated proliferation rate. This aberrant lipid metabolism can affect cellular processes such as cell growth, survival, and migration. Besides the gene mutations, environmental factors, and inheritance, several infectious pathogens are also linked with human cancers worldwide. Tumor viruses are top on the list of infectious pathogens to cause human cancers. These viruses insert their own DNA (or RNA) into that of the host cell and affect host cellular processes such as cell growth, survival, and migration. Several of these cancer-causing viruses are reported to be reprogramming host cell lipid metabolism. The reliance of cancer cells and viruses on lipid metabolism suggests enzymes that can be used as therapeutic targets to exploit the addiction of infected diseased cells on lipids and abrogate tumor growth. This review focuses on normal lipid metabolism, lipid metabolic pathways and their reprogramming in human cancers and viral infection linked cancers and the potential anticancer drugs that target specific lipid metabolic enzymes. Here, we discuss statins and fibrates as drugs to intervene in disordered lipid pathways in cancer cells. Further insight into the dysregulated pathways in lipid metabolism can help create more effective anticancer therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: PPAR; statins; fibrates; cholesterol; viruses; cancer; fatty acids PPAR; statins; fibrates; cholesterol; viruses; cancer; fatty acids
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Dutta, A.; Sharma-Walia, N. Curbing Lipids: Impacts ON Cancer and Viral Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 644.

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