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The Implications of the Long Non-Coding RNA NEAT1 in Non-Cancerous Diseases

1
Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria
2
Research Unit of Non-Coding RNAs and Genome Editing in Cancer, Medical University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria
3
Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77054, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030627
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 29 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Abstract

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in a variety of biological and cellular processes as well as in physiologic and pathophysiologic events. This review summarizes recent literature about the role of the lncRNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) in non-cancerous diseases with a special focus on viral infections and neurodegenerative diseases. In contrast to its role as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) in carcinogenesis, NEAT1’s function in non-cancerous diseases predominantly focuses on paraspeckle-mediated effects on gene expression. This involves processes such as nuclear retention of mRNAs or sequestration of paraspeckle proteins from specific promoters, resulting in transcriptional induction or repression of genes involved in regulating the immune system or neurodegenerative processes. NEAT1 expression is aberrantly—mostly upregulated—in non-cancerous pathological conditions, indicating that it could serve as potential prognostic biomarker. Additional studies are needed to elucidate NEAT1’s capability to be a therapeutic target for non-cancerous diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: long non-coding RNAs; NEAT1; paraspeckles; viral diseases; neurodegeneration long non-coding RNAs; NEAT1; paraspeckles; viral diseases; neurodegeneration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Prinz, F.; Kapeller, A.; Pichler, M.; Klec, C. The Implications of the Long Non-Coding RNA NEAT1 in Non-Cancerous Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 627.

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